Blog Universal Vaccine May 24, 2024

Calmette and Guerin developed the only vaccine against tuberculosis, first administered to humans in 1921. They used the live attenuated bacteria Mycobacterium bovis. This bacteria finds a home in our bone marrow and continuously stimulates the immune system. Over the last 17 years, randomized clinical trials and epidemiology studies have shown that the vaccine protects humans from many infections, including upper respiratory tract infections, leprosy, malaria, and viral and bacterial infections. It is also used to fight bladder cancer. The strain named BCG was chosen for all subsequent vaccines in 1927. Recent clinical studies show that it continued to be safe and has 92% efficacy versus placebo against COVID-19. Efficacy takes 1–2 years to manifest, but the protection may last decades. It is the most widely administered vaccine and is usually a part of the routine newborn immunization schedule in countries with tuberculosis. It was discontinued in the US as a routine recommendation when tuberculosis rates reached near zero.

Multiple BCG vaccinations for the prevention of COVID-19 and other infectious diseases in type 1 diabetes                Denise L. Faustman  et al.
https://www.cell.com/cell-reports-medicine/fulltext/S2666-3791(22)00271-3

 Bladder Cancer: Diagnosis and Treatment
Katharine C DeGeorge et al.         https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29094888/

Bacillus Calmette Guerin
Chika N. Okafor; Ayesan Rewane; Ifeanyi I. Momodu.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK538185/#:~:text=Bacillus%20Calmette%2DGuerin%20(BCG),to%20human%20beings%20in%201921. 

May 18, 2024 Seniors with fractures expire early. 

Geneviève Vincent et al. studied the survival of adults aged ≥66 years old. They used the Canadian database to match patients with a fracture and those with identical medical conditions who did not. They found that the one-month survival rate, the one-year survival rate, and the six-year survival rate were considerably lower in those with a fracture. There are two lessons in this data:

1)Preventative measures like grab bars, walkers, and no-slip surfaces must reduce the fracture rate.

2)Diet and exercise must be used to make falls less likely to produce fractures.  

Post fracture survival in a population-based study of adults aged ≥66 yr: a call to action at hospital discharge
Geneviève Vincent, Jonathan D Adachi, Emil Schemitsch, Jean-Eric Tarride, Nathan Ho, Rajvi J Wani, Jacques P Brown
JBMR Plus, Volume 8, Issue 5, May 2024, ziae002, https://doi.org/10.1093/jbmrpl/ziae002

​May 12, 2024 Blog Anti cholinergic drugs

You may be taking drugs that lead to cognitive decline. Short-term and occasional use may be OK if the relief outweighs the risk, but long-term use should be avoided.

Acetylcholine is the neurotransmitter at neuromuscular junctions, at synapses in the visceral motor system's ganglia, and at various sites within the central nervous system. Anti cholinergic drugs are linked to cognitive decline. [1]

Over-the-counter anticholinergic drugs:
diphenhydramine (Benadryl, Tylenol PM, Advil PM, Unisom SleepGels)
brompheniramine (Dimetapp), dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), doxylamine (Unisom SleepTabs), atropine, benztropine, glycopyrrolate, scopolamine, trihexyphenidyl, diphenhydramine, clinidium, flavoxate

Prescription anticholinergics:
atropine (Atropen), belladonna alkaloids benztropine mesylate (Cogentin), clidinium, clopentolate (Cyclogyl), darifenacin (Enablex), dicylomine, esoterodine (Toviaz),
flavoxate (Urispas), glycopyrrolate, homatropine hydrobromide, hyoscyamine (Levsinex), ipratropium (Atrovent), orphenadrine, oxybutynin (Ditropan XL), propantheline (Pro-banthine), scopolamine, methscopolamine, solifenacin (VESIcare), tiotropium (Spiriva),  
tolterodine (Detrol), trihexphenidyl, trospium [2]

Additional Anti cholinergic drugs used to prevent seizures:  Pregabalin (100 mg/kg), levetiracetam (200 mg/kg), or valproic acid (400 mg/kg) by injection were tested against seizures. All three drugs stopped seizure activity in a delayed fashion, but at the doses indicated, only animals that received levetiracetam reached consciousness. All drugs reduced Acetylcholine release within 60-120 minutes. After drug administration, Lactate/pyruvate ratios, glycerol and isoprostanne levels were also reduced significantly. [3]

[1]       Neuroscience. 2nd edition.
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK11143/

[2]        Today's Geriatric Medicine.
Drugs Linked to Cognitive Impairment and Increased Risk of Death
By Karen Appold Aging Well  Vol. 4 No. 4 P. 6            https://www.healthline.com/health/anticholinergics#About-anticholinergics

[3]        Effects of Three Anti-Seizure Drugs on Cholinergic and Metabolic Activity in Experimental Status EpilepticusImran Imran  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/

Increasing cancer rates in the under 50 population in the US May 6, 2024 

Junk food has become a significant part of nearly everyone's diet. Junk food has the following characteristics: 1 Added sugar 2 Seed oils like soybean, sunflower, corn, canola 3 Low fiber content Added sugars contain fructose that the liver converts into small particle triglycerides that are inflammatory. Seed oils are inflammatory and become oxidized to form toxic and cancer-causing aldehydes. When heated, seed oil fats can also become trans fats. Low fiber causes a slower passage through our digestive system. Slower passage allows for a build-up of toxins in the digestive system. Benjamin Kohl et al. found that cancers were developing more often in people younger than 50. Gastrointestinal cancers had the fastest-growing incidence rates among all early-onset cancers. Benjamin Kohl et al. JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6(8):e2328171. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.28171 Patterns in CancerType your paragraph here.

AI replacing doctors April 29, 2024

There are thousands of diseases with thousands of possible causes and many overlapping symptoms. They are treated with thousands of medications that have many interaction problems. Not all of this is humanly possible. Many recent studies show that AI can do a better job. We will always need doctors to handle emergencies, stabilize patients, and oversee AI, but there will be less need. The following recent studies show how quickly this is happening:

In a 2023 study published in the Annals of Emergency Medicine, ChatGPT made the correct diagnosis in 97% of patients, compared to 87% of human doctors.

JAMA Cardiology reported that an AI trained on nearly a million ECGs performed comparably to or exceeded cardiologist clinical diagnoses.  

Google's medically focused AI model (Med-PaLM2) scored 85%+ when answering US Medical Licensing Examination–style questions. That's an "expert" physician level and far beyond the accuracy threshold needed to pass the actual exam.

A new AI tool that uses an online finger-tapping test outperformed primary care physicians when assessing the severity of Parkinson's disease.

JAMA Ophthalmology reported in 2024 that a chatbot outperformed glaucoma specialists and matched retina specialists in diagnostic and treatment accuracy.

There are many more studies where AI did a better job.

An estimated 800,000 Americans die or become permanently disabled each year because of diagnostic errors. Can AI do better?

Medscape Medical News
Are You Ready for AI to Be a Better Doctor Than You?
Joe Kita
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/are-you-ready-ai-be-better-doctor-than-you-2024a100070q?ecd=wnl_sci_tech_240428_MSCPEDIT_etid6468568&uac=362670CN&impID=6468568

Early onset Cancers  April 22, 2024

 Benjamin Koh1 and his team analyzed the situation and found that we are killing ourselves with what we eat. In their cohort study of 562 145 people with early-onset cancer in the US from 2010 to 2019, the incidence rates of early-onset cancers increased substantially over the study period. Gastrointestinal cancers had the fastest-growing incidence rates among all early-onset cancers. Convenience food, the so-called Junk food, is my prime subject. Fast food contains Fructose, Inflammatory fats, and little fiber or protein. Convenience and processed foods like breakfast cereals, pastries, bread that has not been raised by yeast, Pasta, Yogert with added fruit and sugars, any food that has added chemicals to extend the shelf life, and snack foods have the fiber removed, sugars or carbohydrates, preservative chemicals, artificial sweeteners, and seed oils added.

Patterns in Cancer Incidence Among People Younger Than 50 Years in the US, 2010 to 2019
Benjamin Koh1 et al.
JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6(8):e2328171. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.28171 Patterns in Cancer​​Blog

 Follow up on previous blogs April 16, 2014

This blog is a follow-up to the blogs on toxic compounds for children and mindful eating. All hair conditioners and shampoos with conditioners have quaternary ammonium compounds. They should not be used on children. They are cute even without perfect hair.

I tried mindful eating. It worked for me. I fast from dinner at about 6 PM until lunch at noon. I snacked in the afternoon while working on my computer, reading, or watching YouTube. I found that I ate less if I only snacked at the table without doing anything else or did other things without snacking I ate less. 

Mindful Eating April 9, 2024

Eating while watching TV, writing, doing e-mails, and reading is a bad combination. The calories build up unnoticed. There is no food enjoyment or even recognition of what we are eating. It describes my problem. Caroline Messer has a better idea. She calls it mindful eating.

Mindful eating involves paying close attention to our food choices and how they affect our emotions and typically includes some combination of:

Slowing down eating/chewing thoroughly
Eliminating distractions such as TV, computers, and phones — perhaps even eating in silence
Eating only until physically satiated
Distinguishing between true hunger and cravings
Noticing the texture, flavors, and smell of food
Paying attention to the effect of food on your mood
Appreciating food

How to Cure Hedonic Eating?Caroline Messer, MD
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/how-cure-hedonic-eating-2024a100062t?ecd=WNL_trdalrt_pos1_240406_etid6426790&uac=362670CN&impID=6426790April 03, 2024

Chemicals toxic to children April 7, 2024

​Two classes of chemicals present in common household products may impair the development of oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), which are critical to brain development and function. Quaternary ammonium compounds are ubiquitous in disinfecting agents and personal care products, and organophosphate flame retardants are commonly found in household items such as furniture and electronics.

 It is difficult for the ordinary person to eliminate exposure to organophosphate flame retardants, but it is possible to eliminate exposure to quaternary ammonium compounds. It requires reading the labels of cleaning and disinfecting products and bedding and padding materials.

 Do not buy products with ingredients on this list:
          Benzalkonium chlorides
         Benzalkonium chloride,
         Methylbenzethonium chloride,
        Cetalkonium chloride,
        Cetylpyridinium chloride,
        Cetrimonium, cetrimide,
        Dominium chloride,
        Tetraethylammonium bromide,
        Didecyldimethylammonium chloride
        Domiphen bromide
        Names that end in “ammonium chloride.” Or “ammonium bromide”
        Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP)
        Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP)

After adjusting for multiple confounding factors, results showed that compared with children with urinary BDCIPP concentration in the lowest quartile, those with concentrations in the highest quartile were twice as likely to require special education (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8) and were six times as likely to have gross motor dysfunction (aOR, 6.0; 95% CI, 1.7-21.9).

Exposure to various environmental chemicals has been shown to impair brain development. However, most of this research has focused on neurons. Less is known about the effects on oligodendrocytes, which form the electrical insulation around the axons of CNS cells. Oligodendrocyte development continues from before birth into adulthood. Thus, these cells may be particularly vulnerable to damage from toxic chemicals

Quaternary Ammonium Compounds in Cleaning Products:
Health & Safety Information for Cleaners and Supervisors
https://www.mountsinai.org/files/MSHealth/Assets/HS/Patient-Care/Service-Areas/Occupational-Medicine/QACsInfoforWorkers_18.pdf

 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quaternary_ammonium_cation

Pervasive environmental chemicals impair oligodendrocyte development
Erin F. Cohn et al.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-024

 






Sample picture of what to avoid: Note the ingredient list in the lower left-hand corner. In this picture it is hard to read, but in the store, it can be read. 

April 1, 2024 Cancer among young people

​Incidence Among People Younger Than 50 Years in the US, 2010 to 2019

In this cohort study of 562 145 people with early-onset cancer in the US from 2010 to 2019, the incidence rates of early-onset cancers increased substantially over the study period. Gastrointestinal cancers had the fastest-growing incidence rates among all early-onset cancers. Convenience food, the so-called Junk food, is my prime subject. Fast food contains Fructose, Inflammatory fats, and little fiber or protein.
Benjamin Koh1 et al.
JAMA Netw Open. 2023;6(8):e2328171. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.28171 Patterns in Cancer

March 15, 2024 Depression 

Many people over 60 are clinically depressed. Our present treatments can reverse this depression 60% of the time, which leaves 40% trapped in depression. Psilocybin was used in the 1960s as a recreational drug. Getting high on psilocybin was popular with the youth; however, some users would have what was called a bad trip, which could lead to permanent brain damage. The proponents found that a trained guide could prevent a bad trip. It was put on the Schedule 1 drug list that, made it illegal to make or use. Researchers have since obtained approval to use psilocybin in clinical trials. Charles L. Raison et al. found that by using a guide, clinical depression could be reversed if the drug was given with supervision. ( This was similar to the use of a guide by users in the 1960s)

Raison et al. are trying to get psilocybin on the Schedule 2 list so that a specially trained doctor can prescribe it. In the interim, it is only being used by scientific groups. If you or someone you know has depression, it may be possible to become part of a research program. The referenced research paper from the Journal of the American Medical Association has a list of institutions doing the research; they may be able to use people with depression as experimental subjects.

A novel intervention for MDD.Single-Dose Psilocybin Treatment for Major Depressive Disorder
A Randomized Clinical Trial     By; Charles L. Raison et al.

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2808950?guestAccessKey=521e4b3d-ac75-48eb-8a79-88fc4180104e&utm_source=silverchair&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=article_alert-jama&utm_term=mostread&utm_content=olf-widget_03132024&adv=000003625523

March 5, 2024 Allulose

d-Allulose has several beneficial effects on human health. It has anti-obesity, blood glucose level reduction, anti-diabetes, and anti-atherosclerosis functions. It also interacts closely with gut microbes to reduce inflammatory symptoms.

Allulose is not metabolized and does not provide calories. It is mostly either excreted or secreted. When it is secreted through the urine, Allulose carries some sugar with it.

The only adverse effects are If consumed in large quantities, allulose may cause some stomach discomfort, including gassiness, bloating, and nausea. Contrary to some popular myths, the National Cancer Institute says research hasn’t shown artificial sweeteners to cause cancer.

Research Advances of d-allulose: An Overview of Physiological Functions, Enzymatic Biotransformation Technologies, and Production Processes  Yu Xia et al. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467252/

What You Need To Know About Allulose
https://health.clevelandclinic.org/what-is-allulose

February 23, 2024 GLP-1 agonists

Eli Lilly, maker of the anti-obesity drug Zepbound, announced this week the launch of LillyDirect, a direct-to-patient portal, allowing some patients to obtain its drug for as little as $25 a month. This is one of several medications referred to as GLP-1 agonists. A GLP-1 agonists has been known to reduce the risk of recurrent strokes and heart attacks as well as deaths from cardiovascular events in those with obesity and preexisting cardiovascular disease (or diseases of the heart and blood vessels). GLP-1 agonists work by activating the receptors of hormones (called glucagon-like peptide 1 and others) that are naturally released after eating. That, in turn, makes you feel more full, leading to weight loss of up to 22% for some. It still requires pushback from the table.

It is better to reduce weight and cure fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease with diet and fasting, but some people are not able to do this.  

https://www.google.com/search?sca_esv=596256598&q=anti-obesity+drug+Zepbound&oq=&aqs=

February 15, 2024 Exercise for health

Physical activity reduces disease, cancer, and mortality. Watching a football play is watching 22 men tackle, push, and shove each other, most falling down and everyone getting back up and doing it again. Injuries are usually associated with entanglement. When older people fall, there is concern because most older people are not in good physical condition. 150 minutes per week of moderate physical activity is adequate for just health. This moderate physical activity can be substituted with 15-20 minutes per week of vigorous physical activity. We need to do more to prevent injury by having strong bones and strong muscles and tendons. Injury preventing exercise includes weight training and flexibility training. I do a well rounded set of exercises that take about 30  minutes per day or 210 minutes per week. Reading the referenced journal article will provide a good education in exercise basics. I am 84 years old and not concerned about falling down.

Dose-response associations, physical activity intensity, and mortality risk: A narrative review
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2095254623000911
Ulf Ekelund et al.

January 25, 2024 Weight loss drug side effects

Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) agonists are medications approved for the treatment of diabetes that recently

have also been used off-label for weight loss. These drugs include liraglutide, semaglutide, and bupropion-naltrexone, and  Zepbound. GLP-1 increases the risk of pancreatitis, bowel obstruction, and gastrop, a condition that affects the stomach muscles and prevents proper stomach emptying. It is better if weight loss can be obtained by reducing sugar and other carbohydrates.

Risk of Gastrointestinal Adverse Events Associated With Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists for Weight Loss                Mohit Sodhi et al. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/37796527/

JAMA. 2023;330(18):1795-1797. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.19574

January 15, 2024 Weight loss drug

Eli Lilly, maker of the anti-obesity drug Zepbound, announced this week the launch of LillyDirect, a direct-to-patient portal, allowing some patients to obtain its drug for as little as $25 a month. This is one of several medications referred to as GLP-1 agonists. A GLP-1 agonists has been known to reduce the risk of recurrent strokes and heart attacks as well as deaths from cardiovascular events in those with obesity and preexisting cardiovascular disease (or diseases of the heart and blood vessels). GLP-1 agonists work by activating the receptors of hormones (called glucagon-like peptide 1 and others) that are naturally released after eating. That, in turn, makes you feel more full, leading to weight loss of up to 22% for some. It still requires pushback from the table.

It is better to reduce weight and cure fatty liver disease and cardiovascular disease with diet and fasting, but some people are not able to do this.  

https://www.google.com/search?sca_esv=596256598&q=anti-obesity+drug+Zepbound&oq=&aqs=

​January 3, 2024 Aspirin: What to do?

Aspirin has been shown to prevent strokes, and it has also been shown to cause internal bleeding. This is the dilemma we have had for some time. Studies now show that aspirin prevents Colorectal Cancer. Aspirin in high doses increases the risk of lung and prostate cancer. It is a balance best discussed with your doctor. Show your doctor this information and ask what you should do.

A randomized clinical trial including 19 114 older adults found a statistically significant 38% increase in intracranial bleeding resulting from a combination of hemorrhagic stroke and other causes of intracerebral hemorrhage among individuals randomized to aspirin. The difference in incidence of ischemic stroke was not statistically significant.                                                                                                

Low-Dose Aspirin and the Risk of Stroke and Intracerebral Bleeding in Healthy Older People  Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Geoffrey C. Cloud    https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2807630

Aspirin Use and Common Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies and Randomized Controlled Trials Lijuan Wang Front Oncol. 2021; 11: 690219. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34277434/ID: 34277434

December 18, 2023 Spinach

Plants have evolved to evade organisms that would eat them. Plants can’t run away, so they use a structure that makes them indigestible; this is the strategy used by the trunks and branches of trees. Other plants use toxins to prevent herbivores from eating them. Some, like broccoli and cabbage, use sulfur compounds that are toxic to insects but are good for humans. Spinach uses oxalic acid to prevent mammals from eating it. Oxalic acid is an undesirable component of our food not only because it raises the risk of urinary stones but also because it sequesters calcium, which is one of the essential ions, as insoluble calcium oxalate.

Spinach is one of the highest-oxalate foods. One half-cup of cooked spinach can contain a whopping 755 mg, whereas a cup of raw spinach contains 656 mg of oxalates. Conversely, many foods (things like asparagus, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and freshly ground flaxseed) are low in oxalates.

Leafy greens like spinach contain many vitamins and minerals, but they’re also high in oxalates. A half-cup of cooked spinach contains 755 milligrams.       https://www.webmd.com/diet/foods-high-in-oxalates

December 6, 2023 Fructose

Bettina Geidl-Flueck wrote in The Journal of Endocrinology that despite the existence of numerous studies supporting a pathological link between fructose consumption and the development of the metabolic syndrome and its sequelae, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), this link remains a contentious issue.
She points out that It should not be contentious because there is evidence from both human and animal studies that fructose is a more potent inducer of fatty liver than glucose. A high intake of free sugar as sugar-sweetened beverages increases the risk of obesity, cardiometabolic diseases, and NAFLD. A central role must be attributed to fructose in developing these diseases. It is a potent inducer of fatty liver and a known cause of other fat deposition by reducing fat oxidation and increasing visceral fat. Most importantly, fructose-specific effects occur independently from overfeeding in healthy subjects. There are several mechanisms by which high-fructose consumers increase fructose absorption and catabolism in the liver, exacerbating the metabolic effects. She recommends that sugar/fructose consumption be reduced to avoid these diseases. After reading the link below, you will be convinced that sugar and high fructose should be avoided.

Fructose drives de novo lipogenesis, affecting metabolic health Journal of Endocrinology                    Bettina Geidl-Flueck https://joe.bioscientifica.com/view/journals/joe/257/2/JOE-22-0270.xml

Blog November  30, 2023 Dietary Protein 

​Older adults need more dietary protein than younger adults to support good health, promote recovery from illness, and maintain functionality. Older people need to make up for age-related changes in protein metabolism. The PROT-AGE study group recommends an average daily intake of 1.0 to 1.2 g of protein per kilogram of body weight daily. This amount is above the recommended .8 g per KG for younger adults. In both cases, the quantity may need to be as high as 1.5 g per KG for those who are more active or have chronic diseases. The body weight used should be the optimum weight for that person.

Bauer, J., Biolo, PROT-AGE Study Group. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(8),542–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JAMDA.2013.05.021

November 23, 2023 mRNA causes blood clots.

Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna COVID-19 vaccines are mRNA vaccines. These inject RNA into our bloodstream. This RNA is a set of instructions that cause our body to make the spile protein, which is how the virus attacks cells. Our body recognizes this as foreign and prepares our system for an attack by the actual virus. The problem that develops is the instruction continues to produce spike proteins; these proteins then cause blood clots. There isn’t a way to turn off this production. Novavax has produced a COVID-19 vaccine, which is a protein subunit vaccine. This vaccine does not lead to the production of spike proteins in the blood. We need to halt the production of any mRNA. We should never use this technology.

SARS-CoV-2 spike protein causes cardiovascular disease independent of viral infection. John D. Imig corresponding author https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8965847/

SARS-CoV-2 spike protein causes blood coagulation and thrombosis by competitive binding to heparan sulfate Yi Zheng                                https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8553634/

Adverse events following COVID‐19 mRNA vaccines: A systematic review of cardiovascular complication, thrombosis, and thrombocytopenia  Farah Yasmin, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC10022421/

November 9, 2023 intermittent fasting

Humaira Jamshed et al. did a study using intermittent fasting and counseling to reduce weight and improve blood pressure. The study was a 14-week, parallel-arm, randomized clinical trial conducted between August 2018 and April 2020. The study used 90 adults with obesity aged 25 to 75 years. In this randomized clinical trial, intermittent fasting was more effective for losing weight and improving diastolic blood pressure and mood than eating over a window of 12 or more hours at 14 weeks.

Effectiveness of Early Time-Restricted Eating for Weight Loss, Fat Loss, and Cardiometabolic Health in Adults With Obesity A Randomized Clinical Trial    JAMA Intern Med. 2022;182(9):953-962. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.3050                                https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35939311/

October 24, 2023  Daily multivitamins

Daily multivitamin supplementation, compared with placebo, improves memory in older adults. Multivitamin supplementation holds promise as a safe and accessible approach to maintaining cognitive health in older age. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04582617. There were 3562 subjects, and the trial was double-blind. After three years, those taking the multivitamin were significantly better at memory and cognition tests.

The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition Multivitamin     Supplementation Improves Memory in Older Adults:     A Randomized Clinical Trial  Published: May 24, 2023                           DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajcnut.2023.05.011

October 19, 2023 COVID-19, D3, K and Magnesium 

Vitamin D has been found to reduce the risk and symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). For maximum benefit, it should be supplemented with vitamin K2 and magnesium. I take 2000 IU of Vitamine D3, Magnesium, and a multivitamin with some K2. I also eat vegetables that have K2. Early on, I was given two shots and a booster for COVID-19. They gave me a seizure, so I will not take any more. This supplement combination seems to have worked for me.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases Volume 99, October 2020, Pages 286-290
Simon Goddek                 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijid.2020.07.080

October 7, 2023 Supplements

The following are the supplements I take every day. I fast 18 hours a day from 6:00 PM until Noon the next day.

Calcium with vitamin D3 315 mg Noon and 315 mg PM
          Studies have shown that most people are deficient in Calcium. Vitamin D is needed to metabolize Calcium.
             
Berkley and Jensen Complete adult multivitamin Noon
         Because  I eat a variable diet, This ensures I am not missing some vitamins I need. Studies show a small but           statistical improvement in biomarkers with the addition of commercial multi-vitamins.

Turmeric 1,000 mg PM
         Studies show that this spice improves blood flow. The improvement is marginal, and I think this                                 supplement is not essential. Ginger, Cinnamon, and Ginseng are spices with positive health                                       effects. If you like them, use them.

 Taurine 1,000 mg Noon,
          I am 84, and our bodies make less Taurine after 65. Taurine is required for many body functions, including              producing energy.

NMN (ß-Nicotinamide Mononucleotide)  150mg Noon
          The reason to use NMN is the same as the reason to use Taurine.

Vitamin D3 2000 units PM
          Vitamin D3 is converted to the active form as needed. It is also required for many processes.

Omega 3 – 540 mg M, W, F PM + I eat some fish
         Omega-3 is antiinflamatory. It helps counteract the inflammation from many sources, including omega-6                 fatty acids.

Magnesium twice per day 250 mg Noon 250 mg PM
         Studies have shown that most people are deficient in magnesium. It also counteracts the constipation that             the Calcium would cause.

Iron 6.75 mg Noon M, W, F
I am on the edge of anemia. Most people would not need this unless on a vegan diet.  

 Your health span should be extended by eliminating fructose and reducing Omega-6 fatty acids (September 9), doing recommended exercises ( September 25), and consuming these supplements

September 25, 2023 Exercise

​I have been researching the literature to find the optimum exercise program to reduce cancer and heart disease. The best combination is vigorous aerobic physical activity (VPA) and muscle-strengthening activity (MSA). Moderate physical activity (MPA) was good for cancer and heart disease prevention, but their improvement was negligible when a VPA and MSA program was instigated. More is better up to a point. However, cross-sectional studies in middle-aged and older male athletes revealed increased coronary artery calcification (CAC) and atherosclerotic plaques related to the amount and intensity of lifelong exercise. In my case, I do resistance training using two different machines for upper body Strengthening  and a peddle machine with significant resistance to strengthen my legs and make me breathe heavily, and my heart beat to rise. I then use an arm cycling machine with high resistance to make me breathe heavily and increase my heart rate a second time.

References:

https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/36597865/

JAMA Oncol. 2023;9(9):1255-1259. doi:10.1001/jamaoncol.2023.1830

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/article-abstract/2807854

​September 9, 2023 Staying healthy

The body can not use fructose for energy directly. It has the following effects on the human body: It travels to the brain and causes an increase in the hunger hormone. The liver ultimately converts fructose into small particle triglycerides. Some small particle triglycerides are retained by the liver, causing fatty liver disease, and some are deposited in the omentum. (The omentum is the fatty organ that surrounds the intestinal system. An enlarged omentum looks like a pregnancy.) Small particle triglycerides that travel through the arteries stick and cause arterial blockages. Fructose also disrupts the metabolism of glucose, causing diabetes. Table sugar, brown sugar, agave, honey, maple syrup, and high fructose corn syrup are at least 50% fructose. Sweet fruit also contains fructose.

Inflammatory seed oils damage tissue. The following is a list of seed oils from worst to bad:  safflower oil, grape seed oil, sunflower oil, wheat germ oil, corn oil, soybean oil, cotton seed oil, sesame oil, peanut oil, almond oil, safflower oil, and canola oil. Nearly all degenerative diseases have a link to inflammatory oil consumption. The link with macular degeneration is well established.

Below is a chart that approximately maps Inflammatory oil consumption, fructose consumption, cancer, heart disease, macular degeneration, liver disease, kidney disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. I only need one chart. The scale is different, but the general shape of the curve is the same. Do not consume fructose or inflammatory seed oils unless you want those diseases.








August 31,2023 Cardiac arrest

Warning symptoms associated with imminent sudden cardiac arrest: a population-based case-control study with external validation Kyndaron Reinier, PhD et al. Open AccessPublished:August 26, 2023DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/S2589-7500(23)00147-4   PlumX Metrics

Out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest is a common cause of death with a high fatality rate (>90%). Improved methods are needed to predict and prevent sudden cardiac arrest, thereby reducing mortality. Approximately half of the patients with sudden cardiac arrest report symptoms in the hours, days, or weeks before their cardiac arrest, and some contact their healthcare provider in the week preceding the cardiac arrest.The prevalence of chest pain, difficulty or labored breathing, or excessive sweating without strenuous exercise or high temperature was a warning among men. Among women, only labored breathing was significantly more prevalent among patients with sudden cardiac arrest. Deciding when to call the Emergency Medical Technicians or go to the hospital is a dilemma. The symptoms must be out of the ordinary for the person involved, but delay can be deadly. Dr. Reinier et al. recognized the problem and recommended developing a technique to sort the false alarms from the real signs of a deadly arresst. 

August 25, 2023

Click this link for a paper on Alzheimer's Alzheimer's Paper for JAMA.docx

August 24, 2023 Spinach 

Plants have evolved to evade organisms that would eat them. Plants can’t run away, so they use either a structure that makes them indigestible; this is the strategy used by the trunks and branches of trees. Other plants use toxins to prevent herbivores from eating them. Some, like broccoli and cabbage, use sulfur compounds that are toxic to insects but are good for humans. Spinach uses oxalic acid to prevent mammals from eating it. Oxalic acid is an undesirable component of our food not only because it raises the risk of urinary stones but also because it sequesters calcium, which is one of the essential ions, as insoluble calcium oxalate.

Spinach is one of the highest-oxalate foods. One half-cup of cooked spinach can contain a whopping 755 mg, whereas a cup of raw spinach contains 656 mg of oxalates. Conversely, many foods (things like asparagus, Brussels sprouts, broccoli, and freshly ground flaxseed) are low in oxalates.

August 18, 2023 Beverages and Risk of Liver Cancer and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality

This study is one of many that prove that added sugar is causing a great deal of disease. Added sugar includes Table sugar, Agave, Maple syrup, Honey, and Brown sugar.  

In 98 786 postmenopausal women followed up for a median of 20.9 years, compared with consuming 3 servings or less of sugar-sweetened beverages per month, women consuming 1 or more servings per day had significantly higher rates of liver cancer (18.0 vs. 10.3 per 100 000 person-years; adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.85) and chronic liver disease mortality (17.7 vs 7.1 per 100 000 person-years; adjusted HR, 1.68).

Beverages and Risk of Liver Cancer and Chronic Liver Disease Mortality                                               Longgang Zhao, et al.  JAMA. 2023;330(6):537-546. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.12618

August 10, 2023 The need for Magnesium

​We all need to take sufficient calcium, but we should not forget magnesium. Inge Groenendijk et al. found that magnesium increases bone density in the neck and hip. These areas are critical for the elderly and must be strengthened when young.

The qualitative evaluation demonstrated a positive trend between higher magnesium intake and higher hip and femoral neck bone mineral density. Meta-analysis of four studies showed a significant positive association between magnesium intake and hip bone mineral density (pooled beta: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01–0.06, p < 0.05)

Inge Groenendijk, et al. Impact of magnesium on bone health in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Bone, Volume 154, 2022, 116233, ISSN 8756-3282, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2021.116233.n

August 5, 2023 Exercise for blood pressure control

I always thought aerobic exercises like running and biking were the best for blood pressure. A recent study of multiple investigations that followed 15827 patients found that isometric exercises are best. Isometric exercises, which involve contracting muscles to hold the body in position without moving, are best for lowering resting blood pressure. This study is good news as it doesn’t require equipment, healthy legs, or knees.

Emily Harris Meta-Analysis: Most Effective Exercises for Reducing Blood Pressure  https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2808168

July 28, 2023 Aspirin for older people

The latest studies show that aspirin is not a good way to reduce the risk of stroke. A secondary analysis of a randomized clinical trial including 19 114 older adults found a statistically significant 38% increase in intracranial bleeding resulting from a combination of hemorrhagic stroke and other causes of intracerebral hemorrhage among individuals randomized to aspirin. The difference in the incidence of ischemic stroke was not statistically significant. Geoffrey C. Cloud

Low-Dose Aspirin and the Risk of Stroke and Intracerebral Bleeding in Healthy Older People Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial Geoffrey C. Cloud,

 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2807630?utm_source=For_The_Media&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=ftm_links&utm_term=072623


July 18, 2023 Statins

​Paula Byrne et al. found that the absolute risk reduction of statins appears modest compared with the relative risk reduction. The findings of many clinical studies were inconsistent and inconclusive regarding the association between the magnitude of LDL-C reduction because of treatment with statins and all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, or stroke.

Statins cause muscle pain and weakness; they also cause other side effects such as cognitive loss, neuropathy, pancreatic and hepatic dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction.  (Golomb & Evans, 2010)

Based on the work of Golomb et al. and Byrne et al., for most people, statins are not worth the cost and suffering the side effects. Fixing a diet is usually free as less processed foods are generally less expensive.

Golomb, B. A., & Evans, M. A. (2010). Statin Adverse Effects: A Review of the Literature and Evidence for a Mitochondrial Mechanism. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/1

 Paula Byrne, PhD1; Maryanne Demasi, PhD2; Mark Jones, PhD3; et al. Evaluating the Association Between Low-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol Reduction and Relative and Absolute Effects of Statin Treatment   https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2790055

June 5, 2023 Sweeteners

All added sugars (Table sugar, brown sugar, agave, maple syrup, honey, high fructose corn syrup, and cane sugar) contain at least 50% fructose. Fructose causes the liver to send small particle triglycerides into our blood, causing blood clots, heart disease, fatty liver, and many other diseases. Fruit also contains Fructose. We should eliminate all added sugars and limit fruit. Doing this is hard because we all crave sweets. Abstinence is best, but I can’t always resist, and the other option is sugar substitutes. Saccharine was the first but studies with mice showed that in large doses, it caused cancer. It was not taken off the market because of pressure from the diabetic community. The mouse studies for Saccharine used large quantities, and the results may not show a cancer risk for humans in the small amounts we use.

The next one is Equal. Equal contains Aspartame and Ascefulfame Potassium. There have not been any good studies that show Equal is dangerous. I will use it occasionally, but the Ascefulfame Potassium concerns me. Next is Sucralose, sold under the brand name Splenda. Sucralose is a chlorinated hydrocarbon first developed as an insecticide. It is persistent in the environment, breaks down to make chlorinated hydrocarbons, and was recently found to damage DNA (O’Mary, n.d.). Sucralose should never be consumed. Last is stevia; it is not perfect but probably OK in small quantities. Research continues, but until then, I believe the least bad choice is stevia (Mat Lecompete, n.d.)

Mat Lecompete. (n.d.). Stevia Side Effects And Precautions. Retrieved June 5, 2023, from https://www.doctorshealthpress.com/stevia-side-effects-are-they-good-or-bad/

O’Mary, L. (n.d.). Sucralose Damages DNA, Linked to Leaky Gut: Study. Retrieved June 4, 2023, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/992667?ecd=WNL_trdalrt_pos1_230603&uac=362670CN&impID=5492888

May 26, 2023

Click here for booklet on leadership. 

May 21, 2023

Older adults need more dietary protein than younger adults to support good health, promote recovery from illness, and maintain functionality. Older people need to make up for age-related changes in protein metabolism. The PROT-AGE study group recommends an average daily intake of 1.0 to 1.2 g of protein per kilogram of body weight daily. This amount is above the recommended .8 g per KG for younger adults. In both cases, the quantity may need to be as high as 1.5 g per KG for those who are more active or have chronic diseases. The body weight used should be the optimum weight for that person.

Bauer, J., Biolo, G., Cederholm, T., Cesari, M., Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Morley, J. E., … Boirie, Y. (2013). Evidence-Based Recommendations for Optimal Dietary Protein Intake in Older People: A Position Paper From the PROT-AGE Study Group. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(8), 542–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JAMDA.2013.05.021

April 27, 2023 Bone fractures part one bones

I live in an independent living facility. It is like being on a cruise ship; we are served Breakfast and dinner, activities, and maid service once a week. The residents are in their 70s, 80s, and 90s. I am 83 years old, about in the middle. 88% of the adult population in the US have some degree of metabolic syndrome., The people in the facility where I live are about the same. Because of low muscle mass and weak bones, many falls cause broken bones. I ride my bike and work out regularly, and I mostly avoid sugar and easily metabolized carbohydrates. My bones and muscles are strong, so I don't get hurt when I crash my bike, except my thin skin gets torn. I crash about once a year, and everyone who sees me panics. No one panics when a football player falls during a game; they are, like me, in shape.

Strong bones require calcium and vitamin D. The FDA recommends 1,000 units of Vitamine D and 1300 mg of calcium daily. There is a constant process of bone building and bone deconstruction. Where there are never any stresses, the bone structure is removed. Where there are stresses, the bone is strengthened. Weight-bearing is needed for all of our bones; this requires work in the gymnasium or with weights at home. We must stop consuming sugar, high fructose corn syrup, Agave, honey, and maple syrup. They lead to bone loss.  (García-Gavilán et al., 2018) High sugar and carbohydrates, in general, lead to increased fat. Every pound of fat is a stress on our bones when we fall.

García-Gavilán, J. F., Bulló, M., Camacho-Barcia, L., Rosique-Esteban, N., Hernández-Alonso, P., Basora, J., … Salas-Salvadó, J. (2018). Higher dietary glycemic index and glycemic load values increase the risk of osteoporotic fracture in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED)-Reus trial. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 107(6), 1035–1042. https://doi.org/10.1093/AJCN/NQY043

April 6, 2023 Alcohol consumption

​“In this updated systematic review and meta-analysis, daily low or moderate alcohol intake was not significantly associated with all-cause mortality risk, while increased risk was evident at higher consumption levels, starting at lower levels for women than men.” (Zhao et al., 2023)

There was a significantly increased risk of all-cause mortality among female drinkers who drank 25 or more grams per day and male drinkers who drank 45 or more grams per day. Twenty-five grams of alcohol is about 12 ounces of 5% alcohol beer or 6 ounces of 12% alcohol wine.

Biddinger et al. would differ; his team said: “Genetic epidemiology suggested that alcohol consumption of all amounts was associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but marked risk differences exist across levels of intake, including those accepted by current national guidelines.” (Biddinger et al., 2022)

Both of these studies were well done; the statistical risk of low quantities of alcohol is small, so one team could find it, and another did not. They both found a high risk of heavy drinking. The bottom line for me is: Drinking an occasional alcoholic drink is OK, but regular drinking or drinking to excess is a bad idea.

Biddinger, K. J., Emdin, C. A., Haas, M. E., Wang, M., Hindy, G., Ellinor, P. T., … Aragam, K. G. (2022). Association of Habitual Alcohol Intake with Risk of Cardiovascular Disease. JAMA Network Open, 5(3), E223849. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2022.3849

Zhao, J., Stockwell, T., Naimi, T., Churchill, S., Clay, J., & Sherk, A. (2023). Association Between Daily Alcohol Intake and Risk of All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-analyses. JAMA Network Open, 6(3), e236185–e236185. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2023.6185

Weight loss drugs March 29, 2023

There are now weight loss drugs on the market. They are expensive and not covered by all insurance policies. They also have some side effects. We can not know the long-term effects until patients take them for many years; semaglutide can reduce a patient's weight by over 15%. The reduction has improved heart disease and all diseases associated with obesity. When semaglutide has discontinued, the weight and all the weight problems return. (Almandoz, n.d.)

Almandoz, J. P. (n.d.). What Happens When Newer Weight Loss Meds Are Stopped? Retrieved March 29, 2023,  from: https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/989988?ecd=WNL_trdalrt_pos1_230328&uac=362670CN&impID=5287936#vp_2


March 17, 2023 Depression in seniors

Emily Harris reported: Drugs can help treat depression in the elderly. A recent article in The Journal of The American Medical Association described an upgrade in treatment. They found that adding aripiprazole, an atypical antipsychotic, or bupropion, a dopamine and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor increased the chance of remission. Aripiprazole was found to be better because of the reduced risk of falls. (Harris, Emily, 2023)

Exercise can also improve remission from depression. Felipe B. Schuch et al. reviewed the literature. They found the following: "Available evidence supports the notion that physical activity can confer protection against the emergence of depression regardless of age and geographical region." (Schuch, F. B., Vancampfort, D., Firth, J., Rosenbaum, S., Ward, P. B., Silva, E. S., … Stubbs, B. (2018).

Singh et al. found similar results with exercise. (Singh et al., 2023)

Light therapy is also good for treating depression. Dr. Richard S Schwartz, the associate professor of psychiatry at Harvard Medical School, has said: "For both seasonal and nonseasonal depression, the effectiveness of light therapy is approximately the same as antidepressant medications or popular forms of psychotherapy such as cognitive behavioral therapy," Although evidence varies from study to study, each of these different therapies reportedly improves symptoms in between 40 per cent to 60 per cent of people. Combining two therapies— light therapy and medications — tends to help even more.

Harris, Emily                                                                                                                                     file:///C:/Users/Robert/Downloads/jama_harris_2023_ib_230070_1678826992.32092.pdf

Schuch, F. B., Vancampfort, D., Firth, J., Rosenbaum, S., Ward, P. B., Silva, E. S., … Stubbs, B. (2018). Physical activity and incident depression: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Am J Psychiatry, 175(7), 631–648. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ajp.2018.17111194

Singh, B., Olds, T., Curtis, R., Dumuid, D., Virgara, R., Watson, A., … Maher, C. (2023). Effectiveness of physical activity interventions for improving depression, anxiety and distress: an overview of systematic reviews. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 0, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1136/BJSPORTS-2022-106195

Schwartz , Richard S.  https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/light-therapy-not-just-for-seasonal-depression-202210282840

March 9, 2023 Vitamin D

Ghahremani et al. did a study of incident dementia: Effects of sex, APOE , and baseline cognitive status. They found that a vitamin D deficiency will decrease cognitive ability and increase the likelihood of dementia. The effects of vitamin D were most pronounced in women, those with normal cognitive function, and those without the Gene that increases the chance of Alzheimer’s. Taking a vitamin pill with vitamin D is easy and not expensive. I do it daily and would recommend It; it is cheap insurance. Vitamin D is also needed for many health issues including, strong immune system, bones and teeth. (Ghahremani et al., 2023)

Ghahremani, M., Smith, E. E., Chen, H., Creese, B., Goodarzi, Z., & Ismail, Z. (2023). Vitamin D supplementation and incident dementia: Effects of sex, APOE , and baseline cognitive status. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1002/DAD2.12404​​

February 26, 2023 Blog post on natural sugars

I heard someone say they considered maple syrup to be healthy for consumption. Many people think honey and other natural sweeteners are beneficial. I always point out that poison ivy is a natural product. Animals use glucose and glucose combinations as an energy source and a way to store energy. Glucose is the primary energy source for cells to do work and chemistry. Glucose is chemically aggressive and is escorted by insulin to the cells where it is needed. Glucose is stored in muscles as glycogen. Plants do not have insulin, so they combine glucose with fructose. This combination is less chemically aggressive and makes plant products taste sweet. Plant starches, like potato starch, are made of glucose and have little fructose. Table sugar, brown sugar, honey, maple syrup, and agave have at least 50 % fructose, with commercial high fructose corn syrup the worst at 70% fructose. Fructose is what ripe fruits use to taste sweet and encourage consumption. If it tastes sweet, it likely has fructose.

Fructose is absorbed into our bloodstream by our digestive system. Human cells can not use fructose for energy, so it circulates until it reaches the liver. Some fructose goes to the brain before making it to the liver. In the brain, it activates the hunger signal. Below is a chart of how fructose is metabolized and the some of the damage it does.  

Sugars and starches → Disassembly →      Fructose            +           Glucose
                                                                                ↓                                    ↓
      ┌ ← ← ←← ← ← ←← ← ← ← ←← ←  ←┘                Insulin →  Blood
     ↓                                                                                                               ↓ 
     ↓                                                                                       Energy or glycogen or fat           
     ↓ →→ Blood →Type 2 diabetes
     ↓ →→ Brain  →Increased hunger and Alzheimer’s                                                                            
     ↓              
     Liver →→ Small particle triglycerides        
                                                ↓                                  
                                                Retained in liver → Fatty liver disease
                                                Omentum → Metabolic Syndrome
                                                 Pancreas →Damage or Possible Cancer
                                                 Blood  → Small particles of fat in the blood causing clots  
The above is not a complete list of the damages done by fructose. The omentum is the fatty organ surrounding the digestive system; the omentum functions like the lymph system to keep the digestive cavity healthy. An enlarged omentum is what makes men look pregnant.
The growth of what are called lifestyle diseases matches the consumption of sugars. The chart below does not include all of the other things like high fructose corn syrup.

                Sugar consumption
                              1814 - 2 pounds per year
                              1970 - 123 pounds per year
                               2014 - 152 pounds per year

February 11, 2023 Ultra -Processed foods

“Ultra-processed foods comprised 57.9% of energy intake and contributed 89.7% of the energy intake from added sugars. The content of added sugars in ultra-processed foods (21.1% of calories) was eightfold higher than in processed foods (2.4%) and fivefold higher than in unprocessed or minimally processed foods and processed culinary ingredients grouped (3.7%). In unadjusted and adjusted models, each increase of 5 percentage points in proportional energy intake from UPF increased the proportional energy intake from added sugars by one percentage point. Consumption of added sugars increased linearly across quintiles of ultra-processed food consumption: from 7.5% of total energy in the lowest quintile to 19.5% in the highest. 82.1% of Americans in the highest quintile exceeded the recommended limit of 10% energy from added sugars, compared with 26.4% in the lowest.” (Steele et al., 2016) Steel focuses on sugar, but we consume many chemicals in UPF in larger quantities. “A higher percentage of daily energy consumption of ultra-processed foods was associated with cognitive decline among adults from an ethnically diverse sample. These findings support current public health recommendations on limiting ultra-processed food consumption because of their potential harm to cognitive function.” (Gonçalves et al., 2022) The Chang paper looked at cancer and found results that should dissuade anyone from consuming UPF. “Higher UPF consumption may be linked to an increased burden and mortality for overall and certain site-specific cancers, especially ovarian cancer in women.” (Chang et al., 2023)

Chang, K., Gunter, M. J., Rauber, F., Levy, R. B., Huybrechts, I., Kliemann, N., … Vamos, E. P. (2023). Ultra-processed food consumption, cancer risk, and cancer mortality: a large-scale prospective analysis within the UK Biobank. EClinicalMedicine, 0(0), 101840. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ECLINM.2023.101840

Gonçalves, N. G., Ferreira, N. V., Khandpur, N., Steele, E. M., Levy, R. B., Lotufo, P. A., … Suemoto, C. K. (2022). Association Between Consumption of Ultraprocessed Foods and Cognitive Decline. JAMA Neurology. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANEUROL.2022.4397

Steele, E. M., Baraldi, L. G., Da Costa Louzada, M. L., Moubarac, J. C., Mozaffarian, D., & Monteiro, C. A. (2016). Ultra-processed foods and added sugars in the US diet: Evidence from a nationally representative cross-sectional study. BMJ Open, 6(3). https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009892

January 28, 2023 Blog post seven on Alzheimer’s Disease

To read the entire sequence in order, start with the entry on December 23, 2022. This is the last of the series. Below is a diet for AD based on the AD diet in Age Successfully and additional research:

The Cunnane and the Seneff papers explain the principles of changing the brain from glucose fuel to ketone fuel to combat AD and other health problems. We need to provide medium-chain fatty acids that can be converted to ketones and reduce glucose availability to force the conversion. The conversion happens when in or partially in ketosis. This treatment is based on the theory that the brain loses its ability to use glucose and does not lose its ability to use ketones for energy. The brain can grow more cells and synapses, but this is slow. This treatment must be started early before a significant part of the brain is lost. If Cunnane is right, amyloid and tau proteins can be thought of as brain scar tissue and not the cause of the problem. This diet will provide the ketones without being in full ketosis.

Stopping the loss of intellectual capacity is not easy and requires the person progressing to or with AD to put in the effort. Any attempt to cure AD will only work if the subject has a reason to be intellectually active. This need for motivation is essential for the spouse or caregiver. There needs to be a life purpose or life goals. If the subject is simply in a retirement facility waiting to die, they have no incentive to improve their intellectual capacity. Without a life purpose, why not have AD? In later stages, it is less stressful.

An effective AD cure requires diabetes to be cured first. The presence of significant insulin will prevent ketone metabolism.

After the diabetes is cured, start the first step to eliminate AD: take two tablespoons of Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) oil three times a day. (de la Rubia et al., 2020) MCT oil can have a laxative effect and can cause digestive upset. It may need to be added incrementally.

Use coconut oil for cooking at low temperatures and olive oil for higher temperatures. Eliminating omega-6 fatty acids will reduce inflammation.

Eliminate added sugars to reduce A1c.

Take 2 grams of turmeric (curcumin) daily to clear amyloid plaque proteins from the brain. (Reddy et al., 2018)

Eat sufficient animal protein. For persons over 60, this can be daunting. Baum et al. recommend between 1.2 and 2 grams per day per kg for the elderly. I weigh 175 pounds (79kg) and am 83 years old. I ride my bike and work out in the gym daily. Based on that, I should consume 85 grams of protein per day. An egg has 14 grams of protein. Four oz of raw ground beef has 21 grams of protein. (Baum, 2016)

Take an omega-3 oil supplement that has DHA.

Maintaining an adequate fiber intake and reducing carbohydrates to less than 10% will require replacing potatoes, sweet potatoes, rice, corn, bread, carrots, beets, and other starchy foods with high-fiber vegetables.

Physical exercise and mental exercise are needed to keep the brain active. Both physical and mental activity encourages new brain cell formation and synapse formation. Physical and mental activity only promotes cell brain growth when on this low carbohydrate diet.

Use intermittent fasting to clear inactive proteins and mitochondria.Authors note: I use a modified version of this diet every day. I consume more carbohydrates than the diet above and fast 18 hours daily from 6:00 pm until Noon the next day. My brain is still intact.

January 20, 2023 Blog post six on Alzheimer’s Disease

Taylor et al. found that AD could be reversed using medium-chain triglycerides and a ketogenic diet. Their trial only succeeded with subjects with very mild or mild cognitive impairment. With the more severely cognitively impaired, the dropout rate was 100%. These studies have a problem with the subject’s unwillingness to stay on the diet or the heavy caregiver burden being too hard. (Taylor, Sullivan, Mahnken, Burns, & Swerdlow, 2018)

A high-fat ketogenic diet can achieve nutritional ketosis by providing 20–70 g/day of medium-chain triglycerides containing the eight- and ten-carbon fatty acids octanoate and decanoate or by ketone esters. (de la Rubia et al., 2020) Insulin blocks the metabolism of fats and promotes the storage of body fat. To use eight- and ten-carbon fatty acids, octanoate, and decanoate, carbohydrates must be limited. Given the acute dependence of the brain on its energy supply, it seems reasonable that the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at AD must target how the underlying problem of deteriorating brain fuel supply can be corrected or delayed.

Melzer et al. recognized the loss of the ability of the brain to use glucose and the effectiveness of medium-chain triglycerides in the pathology of AD. This revelation was not further developed. (Melzer, Manosso, Yau, Gil-Mohapel, & Brocardo, 2021)

Coconut oil is high in medium-chain fatty acids, easily converted to beta-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate; our brain can use these in place of glucose. Many studies have been done on both coconut oil and medium-chain triglyceride oil. I reference one by W M A D B Fernando. (Fernando, 2015) All of the studies with medium-chain triglyceride oil show positive results. Most studies with coconut oil studies show positive results.

Blog post number 7 will have the exact recommended diet.

Ravnskov, U., DiNicolantonio, J. J., Harcombe, Z., Kummerow, F. A., Okuyama, H., & Worm, N. (2014, April 1). The questionable benefits of exchanging saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.11.006

Ma, Qiu-Lan, et al. The Novel Omega-6 Fatty Acid Docosapentaenoic Acid Positively Modulates Brain Innate Immune Response for Resolving Neuroinflammation at Early and Late Stages of Humanized APOE-Based AD Models https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596305/

Taylor, M. K., Sullivan, D. K., Mahnken, J. D., Burns, J. M., & Swerdlow, R. H. (2018). Feasibility and efficacy data from a ketogenic diet intervention in Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, 4(1), 28–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.trci.2017.11.002

Cunnane, S. C., Courchesne-Loyer, A., Vandenberghe, C., St-Pierre, V., Fortier, M., Hennebelle, M., … Castellano, C. A. (2016). Can ketones help rescue brain fuel supply in later life? Implications for cognitive health during aging and the treatment of AD. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 9(JUL). https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2016.00053

Xu, Q., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, L., Zhou, B., Mo, R., … Xue, C. (2020). Medium-chain triglycerides improved cognition and lipid metabolomics in mild to moderate AD patients with APOE4−/−: A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Clinical Nutrition, 39(7), 2092–2105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2019.10.017

Kroemer, G., López-Otín, C., Madeo, F., & de Cabo, R. (2018, October 18). Carbotoxicity—Noxious Effects of Carbohydrates. Cell. Cell Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.07.044

January 16, 2023 Blog post five on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

This blog is the last of bad news. Many individuals and businesses market exercise training and exercise equipment for AD. There are also mental exercise programs for AD patients. When these have been studied, the patient will get better temporarily at the physical or psychological exercise, but it will not slow cell death and not slow dependency.

Kane et al. have done a compensative study of attempts to cure AD. Some of the studies provided temporary symptom relief, but none prevented the progress of the disease. “We found mostly low-strength evidence that a wide variety of interventions had little to no benefit for preventing or delaying age-related cognitive decline.” (Kane, M.D., Butler, Ph.D., MBA, & Fink, M.D., MPH, 2017) A ketogenic and medium-chain triglyceride diet was not on the list of treatments studied by Kane et al..

Woods et al. found that mental exercises have a minimal long-term effect in preventing a decline in cognitive function. The researchers found that mental stimulation improved memory and thinking test scores for those with dementia, equivalent to about a six to nine-month delay in worsening symptoms. Some studies found dementia patients who engaged in such activities had increased feelings of well-being and a better quality of life, including improved communication and interactions with those around them. They were, however, no better able to care for themselves or function independently. (Woods, Aguirre, Spector, & Orrell, 2012)

Chen et al. Studied physical exercise as a treatment for AD. The trials included people in the mild to moderate stages of dementia, and the intervention did not appear appropriate for people with severe dementia. No evidence was found of improvements in participants’ mood or ability to care for themselves or function independently. There was no reduction in behavior found difficult by staff or caregivers. Family caregivers, including those trained to deliver the intervention, did not report increased levels of strain or burden.

Kane, M.D., R. L., Butler, Ph.D., M.B.A., M., & Fink, M.D., M.P.H., H. A. (2017). Interventions To Prevent Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia. https://doi.org/10.23970/AHRQEPCCER188

Chen, Y., Wang, K., Huang, T., Xie, C., & Chen, Z. (2023). Exercise interventions ameliorate neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia: A meta-analysis. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 24, 100496. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.MHPA.2022.100496

Woods, B., Aguirre, E., Spector, A. E., & Orrell, M. (2012). Cognitive stimulation to improve cognitive functioning in people with dementia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD005562.PUB2

January 11, 2023 Blog post number four on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

Drugs have not been shown to reverse AD. When brain cells die, they are replaced with placks of amyloid and tangles of Tau proteins. Preventing these proteins has been the focus of most of this research. The approved drug Aducanumab is one in a long line of failed drugs that prevent or reduce amyloid beta plaques. Aducanumab was approved over the objection of the scientific review panel. Trials of Aducanumab have shown mixed results. It will likely fail because the prevention of amyloid beta has consistently failed to delay or reverse AD. More recently, Lecanemab has been approved. (van Dyck et al., 2022)  It operates similarly and shows a modest slowing of cognitive decline over 18 months. There have not been any measurements of brain cell death. These approaches are doomed if amyloid and Tau proteins are scar tissue and not a cause.

Mehta et al. studied the failure of AD drugs. The article was titled “Why do trials for AD drugs keep failing?” They reviewed drugs that were anti-amyloid monoclonal antibodies, used gamma-secretase to decrease the production of amyloid, controlled tau protein, enhanced neurochemicals, and blocked antihistamines. All were failures. (Mehta, O’Donnell, and Yusuf, 2021)

The Indian spice curcumin is a principal constituent of the spice turmeric. Recent research on amyloid-β and curcumin has revealed that curcumin prevents amyloid-β aggregation and crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reaches brain cells, and may protect neurons from various toxic insults of aging and amyloid-β in humans.” (Reddy et al., 2018) Based on my research, curcumin is the best we have so far.

Until recently, in the United States, only five treatments were approved by the US FDA for neurocognitive symptoms of AD. These include:

Three cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine),

One N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist (memantine),

A combination of donepezil and rivastigmine.

These drugs reduce symptoms but do not slow the progression of AD. (Briggs, 2016)

van Dyck, C. H., Swanson, C. J., Aisen, P., Bateman, R. J., Chen, C., Gee, M., … Iwatsubo, T. (2022). Lecanemab in Early Alzheimer’s Disease. The New England Journal of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMOA2212948/SUPPL_FILE/NEJMOA2212948_APPENDIX.PDF

Mehta D, Jackson R, Paul G, Shi J, Sabbagh M. Why do trials for AD drugs keep failing? A discontinued drug perspective for 2010-2015. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2017 Jun;26(6):735-739. doi: 10.1080/13543784.2017.1323868. PMID: 28460541; PMCID: PMC5576861

Reddy, P. H., Manczak, M., Yin, X., Grady, M. C., Mitchell, A., Tonk, S., … Author, D. (2018). Protective Effects of Indian Spice Curcumin Against Amyloid Beta in Alzheimer’s Disease HHS Public Access Author manuscript. J Alzheimers Dis, 61(3), 843–866. https://doi.org/10.3233/JAD-170512

Tampi, R. R., Forester, B. P., & Agronin, M. (2021). Aducanumab: evidence from clinical trial data and controversies. Drugs in Context, 10. https://doi.org/10.7573/DIC.2021-7-3

Briggs Drug treatments in Alzheimer's disease 2016 Robert Briggs 1, Sean P Kennelly 1, Desmond O'Neill 1 https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/27251914/

January 7, 2023 Blog post three on Alzheimer’s Disease (AD)

We are consuming large quantities of omega-6 seed oils. These oils cause inflammation that damages all tissue, including the heart, brain, kidneys, and pituitary.

Oil Type                1814       1909       1999      Percent increase

Soybean                 0             0.01       11.6       116,300

Canola1                 0              0.01          0.8       16,700

Safflower              0              0.04          0.05      25

Cottonseed           0             0.4            0.31      −21

Table 2 Consumption of omega-6 oils in Kilograms per person per year

Omega 6 oil consumption has also tracked AD. Something changes in the brain from being able to use glucose for fuel to needing β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate. The cause of this change in brain metabolism has not been found. Double-blind and biochemical studies are required to know what these oils do to us.

In addition, omega-6 fats are unsaturated and more likely to become oxidized in LDL cholesterol. These oxidized LDL particles cannot be used in cells and will continue circulating, causing systemic inflammation. Oxidized LDL will also stick to the walls of the arteries causing plaques. Fats sticking to the walls of arteries causes a cascade of events that lead to clots. This cascade consists of continued accumulation of fatty deposits, attempts by white blood cells to clear the oxidized LDL from the arterial walls, inflammation signals from the white cells, inflammation of the blood vessels that have the deposits, and finally, the buildup of deposits and the formation of clots. Ravnskov and Kromer focused on heart disease, but the findings may also apply to the even finer capillaries in the brain. (Ravnskov et al., 2014)

Omega 3 fatty acids, primarily from fish, have been shown to reduce the probability of AD (Ma, 2020). Olive oil is low in omega-6 fatty acids, which may be why some Mediterranean diets show positive results.

Ma, Qiu-Lan, et al. The Novel Omega-6 Fatty Acid Docosapentaenoic Acid Positively Modulates Brain Innate Immune Response for Resolving Neuroinflammation at Early and Late Stages of Humanized APOE-Based AD Models https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7596305/

Ravnskov, U., DiNicolantonio, J. J., Harcombe, Z., Kummerow, F. A., Okuyama, H., & Worm, N. (2014, April 1). The questionable benefits of exchanging saturated fat with polyunsaturated fat. Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.11.006

December 31, 2022  Alzheimer's part 2

There have been many studies lifestyle studies that show the link between lifestyle and the chance of developing AD. I described them in my blog dated September 8, 2022. I showed the one by Baumgart et al. that had a chart. There have been many others, like the ones below by Livingston et al. and Melzer et al. All of them are good advice for living a healthy life.

Livingston, writing in Lancet, said less education, hypertension, hearing impairment, smoking, obesity, depression, physical inactivity, diabetes, low social contact, excessive alcohol consumption, traumatic brain injury, and air pollution account for around 40% of worldwide dementias. These dementias could theoretically be prevented or delayed. The potential for prevention is high and might be higher in low-income and middle-income countries with more dementias. (Livingston et al., 2020)

Melzer et al. stress the need for micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals to maintain health. They also recommend optimizing macronutrients. This recommendation was not further developed. They assert nutritional status as the most critical modifiable factor regulating the gut microbiota at different time points across the lifespan and under various health conditions. The brain-gut link is identified as essential. (Melzer, Manosso, Yau, Gil-Mohapel, & Brocardo, 2021

Both gingivitis and E. coli bacteria have been implicated in AD. When I first read the gingivitis study, I thought: Of course, AD patients forget to brush their teeth. Both of these bacteria live on dead tissue. The dead brain cells provide nourishment for these bacteria. (Anderson, 2021) (Zhan et al., 2016) Zahn also noted the fibers in E. coli and their similarity to those in AD. In both studies, healthy brains had some gingivitis and E. coli bacteria. These bacteria may be more a symptom than a cause.

AD increase correlates with increased added sugars; these include sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, maple syrup, agave, honey, and others. The average American ate only 2 pounds of added sugar a year two hundred years ago. (NH Health, 2014)

Year        Consumption

1814 - 2 pounds per year

1970 - 123 pounds per year

2014 - 152 pounds per year

Table 1 Added sugar consumption per year

Increased sugar consumption is linked to AD. Both correlation and biochemistry show this link.

There is an agreement in the literature that brain glucose uptake is impaired in AD. Can cognitive decline be delayed if this brain energy defect is partly corrected or bypassed early in the disease? The principal ketones (also called ketone bodies), β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the brain’s primary physiological alternative fuel to glucose. These two of many studies in mild-to-moderate AD have shown that these brain ketones are as useful to the brain as glucose in healthy age-matched controls. (Cunnane et al., 2016) (Juby 2022) Published clinical trials demonstrate that increasing ketone availability to the brain via moderate nutritional ketosis with medium-chain triglyceride oil has a beneficial effect on cognitive outcomes in mild-to-moderate AD and mild cognitive impairment. (Juby 2022)

Anderson, P. (n.d.). Gum Disease Bacteria a New Treatment Target for Alzheimer’s? Retrieved October 2, 2022, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/963574?uac=362670CN&faf=1&sso=true&impID=3824361&src=wnl_edit_tpal#vp_2

Juby, Angela G corresponding authors, Toni E. Blackburn, and Diana R. Mager Use of medium chain triglyceride (MCT) oil in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease: A randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled, crossover study, with an open‐label extension https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8919247/

Livingston, G., Huntley, J., Sommerlad, A., Ames, D., Ballard, C., Banerjee, S., … Mukadam, N. (2020). Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet (London, England), 396(10248), 413. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30367-6

Melzer, T. M., Manosso, L. M., Yau, S. Y., Gil-Mohapel, J., & Brocardo, P. S. (2021). In Pursuit of Healthy Aging: Effects of Nutrition on Brain Function. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 22(9). https://doi.org/10.3390/IJMS22095026

Zhan, X., Stamova, B., Jin, L. W., Decarli, C., Phinney, B., & Sharp, F. R. (2016). Gram-negative bacterial molecules associate with Alzheimer disease pathology. Neurology, 87(22), 2324–2332. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000003391

  December 23, 2022 Alzheimer's series part 1

This is the first in a series on Alzheimer’s. I will go from what it is to how to reduce the chance of getting it to what to do about it.

My father died of Alzheimer’s. I was the primary caretaker, and I decided I would do whatever it took to avoid that happening to me or anyone else. I have spent years studying the literature and have written this paper to help others avoid this burden. Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer documented changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died at age 55 of a rare mental illness.

In AD, as neurons are injured and die throughout the brain, connections between networks of neurons may break down, and many brain regions begin to shrink. By the final stages of AD, this process—called brain atrophy—is widespread, causing significant brain volume loss. (NIH, no date)

AD has been studied with microscopes and other scientific equipment. I looked at AD from a global perspective. AD was rare and is now common and becoming a pandemic. As a good scientist, I ask what has changed.

Our genetics have not changed.in the last 200 years
We are living longer, which would explain part of the increase.
We are sitting more watching TV or on a computer.
Smoking has declined. I could not find a biochemical link that would increase AD by reducing smoking.
We are consuming a great deal of added sugars. These added sugars include fructose. (Seneff et al., 2010)
We have decreased our consumption of sodium chloride (salt)
We are consuming more inflammatory omega-6 oils. ( the so-called vegetable oils)

December 16, 2022       Curing type 2 diabetes

Tim Pittman of Duke Health describes how Duke Health cures type 2 diabetes. They do it by using a diet that limits carbohydrates. This diet has been available from many sources. I have it in my book and below. Click the web address to read what Tim Pittman wrote. https://physicians.dukehealth.org/articles/low-carb-ketogenic-diet-most-effective-lifestyle-counseling-adherence This diet will be high in fat. We all have been told a lie. Fat is good for you. This diet will decrease insulin, and blood sugar will need to be closely monitored. Persons taking insulin with type two diabetes are walking a tightrope. With too little insulin, the patient will go into Hyperglycemia. With too much insulin, the person will go into diabetic shock (severe hypoglycemia), which can be deadly. According to Tim Pittman, their biggest problem is getting people to believe that they do not need insulin anymore.

Plan to cure type two diabetes:

It is important to stay hydrated without drinking too much and losing too many minerals. 

Everyone should eliminate unsaturated vegetable fats like corn, soybean, and other seed oils. Use olive oil for salads. Cook with saturated fats, Lard, Butter, Coconut oil, or Tallow
 
Everyone should eliminate all added sugars. No sugar soft drinks, cookies, candy, sugar-containing cereals, fruit juices, packaged foods with added sugar, ketchup, or salad dressing with sugar. All added sugars contain fructose which is a toxin. Use a small quantity of erythritol or Equal® as a sweetener.

Limit Carbohydrates to 10% of calories or less.
  
Schedule at least 8 hours of sleep and eliminate blue light at least two hours before bedtime. 
 
Take a multivitamin, magnesium, calcium with vitamin D, Turmeric, vitamin D3, and vitamin C supplements.

Consume some fish or take an Omega 3 supplement or both.
 
Exercise some every day. Walking is good. After diabetes is cured, for long-term health, add more vigorous exercise.

Consume the FDA recommended 50 grams per day or for older people increase the amount as per the tables in the protein section of Age Successfully.
 
Limit fruit to one serving a day or less.

December 11, 2022  Pain and Mindfulness

People in pain have a problem with opioids used to treat the pain. I had a problem with opioids when I had severe back pain. I could not think clearly and could not do my job. I discontinued the opioids and focused on my job. I was able to keep the pain out of my awareness. This was doing it the hard way. Elman and Borsook describe the common problem with this pain treatment. (Elman & Borsook, 2016)  Garland and associates conducted a randomized clinical trial of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement. This trial demonstrated the sustained efficacy of mindfulness for improving opioid misuse, opioid dosing, and chronic pain symptoms across nine months of follow-up. It is successful and can be used to avoid the problems associated with the continued use of opioids. (Garland 2022)

Elman, I., & Borsook, D. (2016). Common Brain Mechanisms of Chronic Pain and Addiction. Neuron, 89(1), 11–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.NEURON.2015.11.027

Garland, E. L., Hanley, A. W., Nakamura, Y., Barrett, J. W., Baker, A. K., Reese, S. E., … Donaldson, G. W. (2022). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement vs Supportive Group Therapy for Co-occurring Opioid Misuse and Chronic Pain in Primary Care: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 182(4), 407–417. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2022.0033

November 28, 2022 Sleep Apnea 

The sleep apnea industry has an extensive business making equipment to diagnose and treat sleep apnea. In most cases, it can be cured by having a subject sleep on their side. Losing weight will also help reduce the tendency to have apnea. Sleep is important, so it needs to be corrected if you have apnea. Sabia et al. studied sleep duration in 50-, 60- and 70-year-old subjects. They found a robust association of sleep duration of less than 5 hours with a 20% increased risk of the first diagnosis of chronic disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, liver disease, depression,  dementia, and arthritis/rheumatoid arthritis. (Sabia et al., 2022)

“The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in the general adult population.”

Sabia, S., Dugravot, A., Léger, D., Hassen, C. Ben, Kivimaki, M., & Singh-Manoux, A. (2022). Association of sleep duration at age 50, 60, and 70 years with the risk of multimorbidity in the UK: 25-year follow-up of the Whitehall II cohort study. PLOS Medicine, 19(10), e1004109. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1004109

JAMA | US Preventive Services Task Force | RECOMMENDATION STATEMENT Screening for Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Adults  file:///C:/Users/Robert/Downloads/jama_bibbinsdomingo_2017_us_160025.pdf

November 22, 2022      Statins

Statins have many harmful side effects, and for those with a low chance of heart failure, their use should be weighed against those side effects. The likelihood of diabetes is only one of the side effects. Not only do statins increase the possibility of diabetes, but also the severity. Proper diet and exercise can significantly reduce heart failure and not have the problems with statins.

“Statin use was associated with diabetes progression in patients with diabetes—statin users had a higher likelihood of insulin treatment initiation, developing significant hyperglycemia, experiencing acute glycemic complications, and being prescribed an increased number of glucose-lowering medication classes.” (Mansi et al., 2021)

 Golomb et al. found damage to muscles; this damaging effect arising on statins does not uniformly resolve fully with statin discontinuation. “Drug interactions arise when drugs inhibit metabolic pathways of statins, compete for metabolism with statins, or cause similar or interacting toxicity. Additionally, interactions may arise when drugs are markers for existing problems that signal vulnerability to adverse statin effects.” Cognitive problems are second only to muscle problems among users of statins. (Golomb & Evans, n.d.)

Peripheral Neuropathy and sexual dysfunction are also possible problems with statins. (Golomb & Evans, n.d.)

Golomb, B. A., & Evans, M. A. (n.d.). Statin Adverse Effects: A Review of the Literature and Evidence for a Mitochondrial Mechanism. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2849981/pdf/nihms-163591.pdf

Mansi, I. A., Chansard, M., Lingvay, I., Zhang, S., Halm, E. A., & Alvarez, C. A. (2021). Association of Statin Therapy Initiation With Diabetes Progression: A Retrospective Matched-Cohort Study. JAMA Internal Medicine, 181(12), 1562–1574. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2021.5714

November 20, 2022 Aspirin 

Cardiovascular disease and Colorectal Cancer are increasing causes of death among U.S. adults. These are only two of the ways life expectancy is decreasing. Asprin has been recommended to reduce these diseases. Aspirin clings to red blood cells, lowers oxygen capacity, and prevents clotting. Reducing clotting, both the clots in brain arteries causing strokes and the clots in arteries to the heart causing heart attacks are reduced. This reduced clotting also leads to internal bleeding, particularly intestinal bleeding. The United States Preventative Services Task Force found net benefit for adults who meet the following criteria: Aged 50 to 59 years, have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least ten years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least ten years.

The current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of initiating aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD and CRC in adults younger than 50 years or older than 70 years. They recommend only taking aspirin if a doctor recommends it for a specific condition.

https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer

November 13, 2022

People who are on Supplemental Assistance can buy fruits and vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, dairy products, bread, and cereals. They can also buy other foods such as snack foods, non-alcoholic beverages, and seeds and plants, which produce food for the household. (FDA, n.d.)  Because snack foods are so expensive to get enough calories, the snack foods will be limited. These people's cognition declines slower on this diet than those on the usual American diet. (Lu et al., 2022)

FDA. (n.d.). What Can SNAP Buy? | Food and Nutrition Service. Retrieved November 10, 2022, from https://www.fns.usda.gov/snap/eligible-food-items

Lu, P., Kezios, K., Lee, J., Calonico, S., Wimer, C., & Hazzouri, A. Z. Al. (2022). Association Between Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Use and Memory Decline: Findings From the Health and Retirement Study. Neurology, 10.1212/WNL.0000000000201499. https://doi.org/10.1212/WNL.0000000000201499

November 8, 2022  Aspirin

The risk of bleeding counters the decision to use low-dose aspirin for heart disease and bone strength. I have included what several studies have said. When aspirin is taken, the aspirin molecules decorate (Yes, this is the technical term) our blood plates. Aspirin prevents them from sticking together. Taking aspirin reduces the possibility of blood clots in arteries. Sticking together is our bodies' way of preventing blood loss internally and externally. Aspirin is also reported to increase bone strength. Using aspirin to increase bone strength is not as efficient as proper calcium and protein in our diet and weigh bearing exercises. Below are the conclusions of relevant studies.

In this substudy of a randomized placebo-controlled trial, the risk of the first fracture was similar in the aspirin and placebo groups, but the risk of serious fall was statistically significantly greater in the aspirin group (total falls 884 vs. 804) (Barker et al., 2022)

Low-dose aspirin as a primary prevention strategy in older adults resulted in a significantly higher risk of major hemorrhage. It did not result in a significantly lower risk of cardiovascular disease than a placebo. (Davidson et al., 2022)

The decision to initiate low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD in adults aged 40 to 59 years who have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk should be an individual one. Evidence indicates that the net benefit of aspirin use in this group is small. Persons who are not at increased risk for bleeding and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily are more likely to benefit. The USPSTF recommends against initiating low-dose aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD in adults 60 years or older. (McNeil et al., 2018)

Barker, A. L., Morello, R., Thao, L. T. P., Seeman, E., Ward, S. A., Sanders, K. M., … McNeil, J. J. (2022). Daily Low-Dose Aspirin and Risk of Serious Falls and Fractures in Healthy Older People: A Substudy of the ASPREE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2022.5028

Davidson, K. W., Barry, M. J., Mangione, C. M., Cabana, M., Chelmow, D., Coker, T. R., … Wong, J. B. (2022). Aspirin Use to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease: US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendation Statement. JAMA, 327(16), 1577–1584. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2022.4983

McNeil, J. J., Wolfe, R., Woods, R. L., Tonkin, A. M., Donnan, G. A., Nelson, M. R., … Murray, A. M. (2018). Effect of Aspirin on Cardiovascular Events and Bleeding in the Healthy Elderly. New England Journal of Medicine, 379(16), 1509–1518. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMOA1805819/SUPPL_FILE/NEJMOA1805819_DATA-SHARING.PDF

Nov 5, 2022 Yoga and CBD on anxiety, depression, and insomnia

New research suggests that yoga and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) significantly improve worry, anxiety, and insomnia in older adults that last even 6 months after discontinuing treatment. They are both nonpharmacologic therapies. At long-term follow-up, the majority of participants in both the CBT and yoga arms of the RCT demonstrated a meaningful change in worry (85.7% and 77.6%, respectively), anxiety (82.1% and 80.8%), and insomnia (52.8% and 44.3%). (Brenes et al., 2020)

Brenes, G. A., Divers, J., Miller, M. E., Anderson, A., Hargis, G., & Danhauer, S. C. (2020). Comparison of cognitive-behavioral therapy and yoga for the treatment of late-life worry: A randomized preference trial. Depression and Anxiety, 37(12), 1194–1207. https://doi.org/10.1002/DA.23107

November, 1 2022 Caffeine during pregnancy

​Gleason et al. found that Intrauterine exposure to increasing levels of caffeine, even in low amounts, was associated with shorter stature in early childhood. (Gleason et al., 2022)  Chen et al. found Higher maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of delivering low birth-weight infants. These findings support recommendations to restrict caffeine intake during pregnancy to low levels. Based on both studies, zero caffeine is probably best. (Chen et al., 2014)

Chen, L. W., Wu, Y., Neelakantan, N., Chong, M. F. F., Pan, A., & van Dam, R. M. (2014). Maternal caffeine intake during pregnancy is associated with risk of low birth weight: A systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis. BMC Medicine, 12(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/S12916-014-0174-6

Gleason, J. L., Sundaram, R., Mitro, S. D., Hinkle, S. N., Gilman, S. E., Zhang, C., … Grantz, K. L. (2022). Association of Maternal Caffeine Consumption During Pregnancy With Child Growth. JAMA Network Open, 5(10), e2239609–e2239609. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2022.39609

Oct 25, 2022 Sucralose

Charles Vega did a study of artificial sweeteners. He found that all affect the intestinal microbiome. The microbiome is the microbes in our intestines. They help digest food, make some vitamins, and protect us from disease-causing bacteria. (Vega, n.d.) The two that were the most damaging were saccharin and sucralose. I am most concerned about sucralose. Schiffman & Rother reviewed the literature and found: “Although early studies asserted that sucralose passes through the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) unchanged, the subsequent analysis suggested that some of the ingested sweetener is metabolized in the GIT.” (Schiffman & Rother, 2013) These metabolites would be organic chlorine compounds. Organic Chlorine compounds are toxic, and many cause cancer.

Schiffman, S. S., & Rother, K. I. (2013). Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews, 16(7), 399. https://doi.org/10.1080/10937404.2013.842523

Vega, C. P. (n.d.). Can Sugar Substitutes Alter Gut Microbiota? Retrieved October 22, 2022, from https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/982541?icd=ssl_login_success_221022

October 19, 2022

Sabia et al. studied sleep duration in 50-, 60- and 70-year-old subjects. They found a robust association of sleep duration of less than 5 hours with a 20% increased risk of a first diagnosis of chronic disease, stroke, heart failure, chronic kidney disease, liver disease, depression,  dementia, and arthritis/rheumatoid arthritis. (Sabia et al., 2022)
Sabia, S., Dugravot, A., Léger, D., Hassen, C. Ben, Kivimaki, M., & Singh-Manoux, A. (2022). Association of sleep duration at age 50, 60, and 70 years with the risk of multimorbidity in the UK: 25-year follow-up of the Whitehall II cohort study. PLOS Medicine, 19(10), e1004109. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.1004109

October 11, 2022

Each year in North America, out of a population of  368,807,000, there are 46,600 cases of liver cancer and 34,800 deaths. 56% of liver cancer is related to Human papillomavirus infection (HPV), and 20% is connected to the Hepatitis C virus (HCV). A further 18% of the liver cancer burden may be related to tobacco smoking. An estimated 17% could be attributable to alcohol drinking, with multiple risk factors being attributed to the same cases or deaths. Metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease have also become prominent causes of primary liver cancer. All of these factors are either preventable or significantly reducible. Human papillomavirus infection (HPV) can be prevented with a vaccine, the hepatitis C virus can be cured with a drug, and people can stop smoking. Alcohol drinking could be reduced. Metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are caused by diet. (Rumgay et al., 2022)

Rumgay, H., Arnold, M., Ferlay, J., Lesi, O., Cabasag, C. J., Vignat, J., … Soerjomataram, I. (2022). Global burden of primary liver cancer in 2020 and predictions to 2040. Journal of Hepatology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JHEP.2022.08.021

October 5, 2022

Sharon Worcester gave me news I didn't want to hear. She found alcohol is a major preventable risk factor for cancer. The study was published online on August 24, 2022, in JAMA Network Open.

Higher consumption was an important cancer risk factor, with the highest risks observed among people who drink 3 alcoholic beverages per day and higher. A reduction in use was associated with lower risk, particularly among participants who started drinking at a heavy level. Previous studies have estimated that alcohol use accounts for nearly 4% of newly diagnosed cancers worldwide and nearly 5% of US cancer cases. The figures are much higher for some specific cancers. That same US study found that alcohol accounts for ≥45% of oral cavity/pharyngeal cancers and ≥25% of laryngeal cancers, 12.1% of female breast cancers, 11.1% of colorectal cancers, 10.5% of liver cancers, and 7.7% of esophageal cancers.

Subjects were categorized based on alcohol consumption: none (0 g/d), mild ( <15 g/d) with 3% increased risk, moderate (15–29.9 g/d) with a 10% increased risk, and heavy (30 or more g/d) with a 34% increased risk. These levels correspond to none, 1, 2, and 3 drinks per day.

Worcester, Sharon JAMA Network Open. Published online August 24, 2022. https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/979674?src=mkm_ret_221001_mscpmrk_ONC_top-content&uac=362670CN&impID=4701091#vp_2

September 30, 2022 Pill taking

Doctor Adam Marcus described his bad experience in taking a pill in Medscape. He was lying down when he remembered to take a pill. Adam swallowed the pill without water and lay back down. He quickly had painful cramps. Motivated by that experience, he studied the biology of pill taking. Our stomach is shaped like a bean, turns right, and is tapered at the bottom, where it connects to our intestine. To quickly get the pill to its destination, it is best to sit up and lean right. Water or food is needed to move the pill along; the instructions with the drug will indicate which is best. Unfortunately, the article is not available to the public without a subscription.

Rajat Mittal, PhD, professor of medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine; professor of mechanical engineering, Whiting School of Engineering.

Physics of Fluids: "Computational modeling of drug dissolution in the human stomach: Effects of posture and gastroparesis on drug bioavailability."

September 23, 2022  Multi Vitamin for reducing the chance for cognitive decline

Laura D. Baker and others did a study of cocoa extract, believing it would improve cognitive performance; they used a multivitamin as a placebo. They were surprised that the cocoa did not work, but the multivitamin did improve cognition. The process of preparing our food often removes essential vitamins and minerals. Many people are deficient in one or more vitamins or minerals. Multivitamin supplements are inexpensive insurance in being deficient. (Baker et al., 2022)

Baker, L. D., Manson, J. E., Rapp, S. R., Sesso, H. D., Gaussoin, S. A., Shumaker, S. A., … Laura Baker, C. D. (2022). Effects of cocoa extract and a multivitamin on cognitive function: A randomized clinical trial. Alzheimer’s & Dementia. https://doi.org/10.1002/ALZ.12767

September 14, 2022   Why hard mental work makes you tired

​Wiehler and others studied why daylong cognitive work alters the control of economic decisions. They studied two groups. Choice-related fatigue markers were only present in the high-demand group, with a reduction of pupil dilation during decision-making and a preference shift toward short-delay and little-effort options (a low-cost bias captured using computational modeling). In Summary: high-demand cognitive work resulted in higher glutamate concentration and glutamate/glutamine diffusion in a cognitive control brain region (lateral prefrontal cortex). (Wiehler)

A neuro-metabolic account of why daylong cognitive work alters the control of economic decisionsAntonius Wiehler Published: August 11, 2022DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2022.07.010https://www.cell.com/current-biology/pdfExtended/S0960-9822(22)01111-3

September 8, 2022

This chart clearly outlines how to avoid Alzheimer’s and other dementias. I have reviewed many clinical studies that describe the Mediterranean diet. They are not consistent, but they have two things in common. They use olive oil and not inflammatory vegetable oils like soybean oil. They are low in added sugars. The low red meat factor has been studied separately, and there is no relationship between moderate red meat consumption and dementia or heart disease. (Baumgart et al., 2015)











Baumgart, M., Snyder, H. M., Carrillo, M. C., Fazio, S., Kim, H., & Johns, H. (2015). Summary of the evidence on modifiable risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia: A population-based perspective. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 11(6), 718–726. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JALZ.2015.05.016

​​August 29, 2022

According to the CDC, as of August 26, 2022
COVID-19 cases: 7-Day Average is 90,676 per day
Hospitalizations: 7-Day Average is 5,314 per day                                                                                                                  Deaths: 7-day Average is 390 per day

August 26, 2022

Intermittent fasting Is a way to lose the fat that causes a higher incidence of Alzheimer’s, cancers, diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, increased risk of falling, increased injury caused by a fall, Hip problems, knee problems, and Arthritis. The health problems described above are epidemic, and independent studies have linked them to metabolic syndrome. Earlier, I discussed the role played by fructose and inflammatory fatty acids. Fructose is found in all added sugars. Soybean and most vegetable oils are inflammatory. Look at earlier blog entries for details.

People recoil in horror when I describe my 18-hour fast each day from 6:00 PM until Noon the next day, even though they have occasionally done it by being busy and unable to get breakfast. Our bodies switch from using carbohydrates to using fat for energy about 11 hours after we stop eating carbohydrates. It will happen during the night if you do not have an evening snack. This switch happens to athletes in long-duration activities. It is called hitting the wall. After the conversion, energy levels pick up. Besides the need for coffee by those addicted to caffeine, breakfast is a habit that will seem hard to break. After the third or fifth day, skipping it will become a new habit and easy.

(Byrne, Sainsbury, King, Hills, & Wood, 2018) Byrne, N. M., Sainsbury, A., King, N. A., Hills, A. P., & Wood, R. E. (2018). Intermittent energy restriction improves weight loss efficiency in obese men: The MATADOR study. International Journal of Obesity, 42(2), 129–138. https://doi.org/10.1038/IJO.2017.206

(Harvie, M., Wright, C., Pegington, M., McMullan, D., Mitchell, E., Martin, B., … Howell, A. 2013). The effect of intermittent energy and carbohydrate restriction v. daily energy restriction on weight loss and metabolic disease risk markers in overweight women. British Journal of Nutrition, 110(8), 1534–1547. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114513000792

(Jamshed, H., Steger, F. L., Bryan, D. R., Richman, J. S., Warriner, A. H., Hanick, C. J., … Peterson, C. M. 2022). Effectiveness of Early Time-Restricted Eating for Weight Loss, Fat Loss, and Cardiometabolic Health in Adults With Obesity: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2022.3050

August 19, 2022 ​Low muscle mass and cognitive decline:

A study found that low muscle mass was significantly and independently associated with faster subsequent executive function decline over three years among adults at least 65. Measures of lean mass could be routinely incorporated into the image. Clinical screening of older adults to identify those with low muscle mass may provide insight regarding their risk of developing cognitive impairment and thereby guide the testing and application of preventative or therapeutic interventions. (Tessier, Wing, Rahme, Morais, & Chevalier, 2022)

Tessier, A.-J., Wing, S. S., Rahme, E., Morais, J. A., & Chevalier, S. (2022). Association of Low Muscle Mass With Cognitive Function During a 3-Year Follow-up Among Adults Aged 65 to 86 Years in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging. JAMA Network Open, 5(7), e2219926–e2219926. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2022.19926

August 14, 2022

Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, and Calcium are minerals required for optimum health. I covered Magnesium and Calcium earlier. Many doctors prescribe a low sodium diet even though less than 3 grams of Sodium per day is dangerous, can lead to insulin resistance, and can cause death for patients in a hot environment. Low Sodium does not cure any disease. For a small minority of patients, high insulin may block sodium excretion. This needs to be corrected by eliminating type 2 diabetes. Across cultures and in varied climates, people naturally consume 3 to 5 grams of Sodium. We will naturally consume the correct amount of Sodium. (McCarron, Kazaks, Geerling, Sterns, & Graudal Niels, 2013)

Most people are Potassium deficient because they consume less than 5 grams daily. Meat, potatoes, and fresh vegetables usually supply this amount. Potassium is lost when foods are cooked in water, and the water is drained off. Both Neal and Yin studied substituting Potassium salt for Sodium salt and found a health improvement. (Yin et al., 2022) (Neal, B 2021)

When substituting Potassium Salt for Sodium Salt, care must ensure that sufficient Sodium is still consumed. I do this by eating raw vegetables, and when at home, using a mix of Sodium Chloride and Potassium Chloride at the table.

McCarron, D. A., Kazaks, A., Geerling, J. C., Sterns, J. S., & Graudal Niels, A. (2013). Normal Range of Dietary Sodium Intake. American Journal of Hypertension, 1218–1222. Retrieved from https://watermark.silverchair.com/hpt139.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAj8wggI7BgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggIsMIICKAIBADCCAiEGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQMF2OmwZdLKYnCazDBAgEQgIIB8vPmkeyIHG6MOviKM-IpnYIEdXL7PhRTswwFPB9Bri6LkiRh

Neal, B., Wu, Y., Feng, X., Zhang, R., Zhang, Y., Shi, J., … Elliott, P. (2021). Effect of Salt Substitution on Cardiovascular Events and Death. Https://Doi.Org/10.1056/NEJMoa2105675, NEJMoa2105675. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMOA2105675

Yin, X., Rodgers, A., Perkovic, A., Huang, L., Li, K.-C., Yu, J., … Neal, B. (2022). Effects of salt substitutes on clinical outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Heart, heartjnl-2022-321332. https://doi.org/10.1136/HEARTJNL-2022-321332

August 12, 2022

Alden and others found that liver calls could convert vaccine RNA into DNA and absorb it into the liver calls. This experiment was done in a laboratory and not in a person. More work must be done to find liver cells with the converted RNA in persons who had the vaccine. It is terrible if this happens to people who have had the vaccine. Liver cells with this DNA will not work like natural liver cells and may be more likely to become cancerous. (Aldén et al., 2022)  

The CDC has now approved a vaccine by Novavax that does not use RNA. It would be prudent to use the Novavax vaccine until the research is completed. (CDC)

Aldén, M., Olofsson Falla, F., Yang, D., Barghouth, M., Luan, C., Rasmussen, M., & De Marinis, Y. (2022). Intracellular Reverse Transcription of Pfizer BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA Vaccine BNT162b2 In Vitro in Human Liver Cell Line. Current Issues in Molecular Biology, 44(3), 1115–1126. https://doi.org/10.3390/CIMB44030073/S1

CDC. (n.d.). Novavax COVID-19, Adjuvanted Vaccine: Overview and Safety | CDC. Retrieved August 12, 2022, from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/novavax.html

August 8, 2022 Alzheimer's

The FDA approved Aducanumab (Aduhelm) for treating Alzheimer's disease. This approval was despite being entirely rejected by the science advisory panel. Biogen submitted two studies to obtain approval. The approval was based on clearing the amyloid plaques. There have been many plaque removal and prevention studies. None have helped halt or reverse Alzheimer's. In the Journal of the American Medical Association, Woloshin and Kesselheim wrote the following about Aducanumab.

"Two clinical trials tested aducanumab. When analyzed together, they showed no change in remembering, learning, reasoning, or functioning vs. placebo. Examined separately, 1 trial showed slightly less worsening on these measures in patients receiving the drug vs placebo. The average effect seen in the trials is not likely to be noticeable for many patients or families.

Adverse effects were common. In the trials, 41% of patients experienced brain swelling or bleeding. While most cases were mild and managed with dose reduction, 1% to 2% of patients required hospitalization or had long-lasting impairment. A recent patient death linked to aducanumab is under investigation.

Aducanumab does not cure or reverse Alzheimer's disease. In 2 clinical trials, after 18 months it reduced amyloid plaque levels, but that did not translate to any clinical effect in 1 trial or a noticeable effect in the other. Potentially serious harms are common. The FDA has required that another trial be completed by 2030 to decide whether aducanumab has a meaningful patient benefit."

Even if Aducanumab slows the reduction in cognition, that will make it worse.

Steven Woloshin, MD, MS1,2; Aaron S. Kesselheim, MD, JD, MPH3 June 6, 2022JAMA Intern Med. 2022;182(8):892. doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2022.1039 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamainternalmedicine/fullarticle/2792897

August 2, 2022 Sauna bathing

Sudden cardiac death is a global public health burden accounting for 15–20% of all deaths. Sauna bathing is associated with a reduced risk of adverse cardiovascular disease and other outcomes and mortality. Reports have linked sauna bathing with reduced or increased risk of sudden cardiac death, but the evidence is uncertain. This review summarizes available studies linking sauna bathing with sudden cardiac death. Observational data suggest that regular sauna bathing is associated with a substantial risk reduction in sudden cardiac death.

Furthermore, the data suggest that a combination of regular physical activity and sauna baths confers substantial risk reduction for sudden cardiac death compared with either modality alone. Few reports have linked sauna baths with sudden cardiac deaths. Still, these single case incidents have been attributed to dehydration, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias due to a combination of sauna exposure and alcohol consumption. Sauna bathing is generally safe for most healthy people and even among patients with a stable cardiac disease if used sensibly and cautiously. The protective effect of sauna bathing on sudden cardiac death may be linked to reduced arterial stiffness, decreases in inflammation and oxidative stress, stabilization of the autonomic nervous system, beneficial changes in circulating lipid profiles and other sudden cardiac disease risk markers, and lowering of systemic blood pressure. (Laukkanen & Kunutsor, 2019)

Sauna bathing is associated with many health benefits, from cardiovascular and cognitive health to physical fitness and muscle maintenance. It is generally considered safe for healthy adults and may be safe for special populations with appropriate medical supervision. Heat stress via sauna use elicits hormetic responses driven by molecular mechanisms that protect the body from damage, similar to those produced by moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise. It may offer a means to forestall the effects of aging and extend healthspan. (Patrick & Johnson, 2021)

Laukkanen, J. A., & Kunutsor, S. K. (2019). Is sauna bathing protective of sudden cardiac death? A review of the evidence. Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases, 62(3), 288–293. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.PCAD.2019.05.001

Patrick, R. P., & Johnson, T. L. (2021). Sauna use as a lifestyle practice to extend healthspan. Experimental Gerontology, 154, 111509. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.EXGER.2021.111509

July 25, 2022

For someone reading my blog, it is reasonable to say: What do you do? I must say that I did all the wrong things except for exercise and required two open heart surgeries, cancer, diverticulitis, and hospital pneumonia in early 2018. This sequence of health problems has damaged my heart. I am now in better shape and eating right.

•             I fast from 6:00 PM to Noon the next day (about 18 hours daily) to keep the weight off and allow autophagy to clear underperforming cells to be recycled.

•             For lunch, I eat a salad of broccoli, cauliflower, and celery with salad dressing, then bacon and eggs or sausage and eggs. I finish with one piece of fruit. I use a salad dressing without sugar. I also replace the Inflammatory vegetable oil in the salad dressing with medium chain triglyceride oil. 

•             For dinner, I stay away from foods fried in Vegetable oil. I usually start with a salad.  I obtain protein from fish, beef, pork, or chicken. I do not eat fish high on the food chain; It has too much mercury. I also eat vegetables with butter and salt. I use butter liberally on a roll.

•             I do not eat a dessert with sugar. Sometimes I will have soup for dessert.

•             I ride my bicycle for legs and balance and use a gym to strengthen my upper body.

My weight is stable at about 175 pounds. This is optimum for a six-foot person. Heart healing is slow, and at 82 years old it might not be fast enough. 

July 19, 2022

Monkeypox cases have risen to more than 11,000 worldwide, according to the CDC. In the U.S. Alone, Cases Have Now Passed 1,000. This is an undercount because many do not seek treatment and there isn’t an incentive to report them. The  June 16 blog post has how to avoid getting monkeypox.  It is also good to avoid places that have significant numbers of homosexual people.   

"If this is a trial run post-COVID to see if we are better, I don't think it is going that well," Amesh Adalja, MD, a senior scholar at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Center for Health Security in Baltimore, said in an interview. "The CDC response leaves a lot to be desired. "The slow response to growing monkeypox cases is even more puzzling, Adalja says, because we already had all the tools needed to contain the spread. "This should have been a home run after COVID-19: a not very transmissible disease for which we have off-the-shelf vaccines, off-the-shelf antivirals, and diagnostic tests that already existed," he said.

Medscape Monkeypox Treatment in Limited Supply as Cases Soar https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/977319

July 18, 2022

Positive COVID tests can continue for months after recovery from covid (CDC): Patients who have recovered from COVID-19 can continue to have detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA in upper respiratory specimens for up to 3 months after illness onset. However, replication-competent virus has not been reliably recovered from such patients, and they are not likely infectious.

Isolation guidance is 5 days for people who had mild COVID symptoms. Patients just have to wear a mask for another 5 days (CDC): For children and adults with mild, symptomatic COVID-19, isolation can end at least 5 days after symptom onset and after fever ends for 24 hours (without the use of fever-reducing medication) and symptoms are improving, if these people can continue to properly wear a well-fitted mask around others for 5 more days after the 5-day isolation period. Day 0 is the first day of symptoms.

Clinical definition of mild COVID symptoms (NIH): Mild Illness: Individuals who have any of the various signs and symptoms of COVID-19 (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, malaise, headache, muscle pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, loss of taste and smell) but who do not have shortness of breath, dyspnea, or abnormal chest imaging.

CDC reference: https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/duration-isolation.html

NIH reference: https://www.covid19treatmentguidelines.nih.gov/overview/clinical-spectrum/

July 15, 2022

K.T. Laird and others reviewed multiple Mind-Body Therapies (MBT) studies such as meditation, yoga, tai chi, and qigong. These studies confirm that MBT’s are minimally invasive, cost-effective approaches for the management of late-life mood and cognitive disorders. MBTs enhance well-being, mood, sleep, and cognition in older adults. Evidence suggests that mindful movement (e.g., yoga, tai chi, walking meditation) may even outperform conventional physical exercise on quality of life, mood, and cognitive functioning. They did not find any downsides to these therapies. However, other studies have shown that meditation can be a deterrent to mental health if not controlled. Meditation should be led, at least initially, by someone trained as a meditation instructor. Once taught and practiced, the benefits are long-lasting. I was introduced to meditation in Thailand and found it relaxing and mind-clearing. After meditating, I find it easier to focus. Yoga and tai chi are good for balance, flexibility, and mind-clearing.

Laird, K.T., Paholpak, P., Roman, M. et al. Mind-Body Therapies for Late-Life Mental and Cognitive Health. Curr Psychiatry Rep 20, 2 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-018-0864-4   

July 11, 2022

Work by Parisien and others found that we were doing the wrong thing by taking aspirin, Ibuprofen, and other NSAIDs. For pain too quickly. Clinical data showed that these anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with an increased risk of persistent pain, suggesting that anti-inflammatory treatments might adversely affect pain duration. (Parisien et al., 2022) To study the chemistry of this effect, they used mice to find the specific healing compound the antipain drug blocked.

Parisien, M., Lima, L. V., Dagostino, C., El-Hachem, N., Drury, G. L., Grant, A. V., … Diatchenko, L. (2022). Acute inflammatory response via neutrophil activation protects against the development of chronic pain. Science Translational Medicine, 14(644). https://doi.org/10.1126/SCITRANSLMED.ABJ9954/SUPPL_FILE/SCITRANSLMED.ABJ9954_TABLES_S2_TO_S9.ZIP

July 4, 2022

We have not studied COVID-19 long enough to know the long-term effects of the vaccines or the disease. We must do the best with what we have. Two articles from the Journal of the American Medical Society give us what we have. The Edlow paper tells us there is a small but not zero risk of brain damage to the baby when the mother contracts COVID-19 during pregnancy. The Fell article tells us there isn't a statistically significant risk to the baby when a mother has the vaccination. It is best to read the entire papers and make up your own mind.

Andrea G. Edlow Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 1 Year in Infants of Mothers Who Tested Positive for SARS-CoV-2 During JAMA Netw Open. 2022;5(6):e2215787. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.15787 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2793178

Deshayne B. Fell, Association of COVID-19 Vaccination in Pregnancy With Adverse Peripartum Outcomes JAMA. 2022;327(15):1478-1487. oi:10.1001/jama.2022.4255 https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2790607

June 30, 2022

Christopher E Ramsden found the data from a study that had been done in years earlier. This study had never been published because the results were contrary to the prevalent belief that cholesterol caused heart disease. We now have many studies that lower cholesterol increases chance of death. The unsaturated vegetable oils are inflammatory and damage all organs. These damaging fats include linoleic acid which is a corn and soybean unsaturated fatty acid. Replacement with these fatty acids effectively lowers serum cholesterol but does not support the hypothesis that this translates to a lower risk of death from coronary heart disease or all causes. The subjects given the vegetable oil died sooner. BMJ is the British Medical Journal.

Re-evaluation of the traditional diet-heart hypothesis: analysis of recovered data from Minnesota Coronary Experiment (1968-73) Link: https://www.bmj.com/content/bmj/353/bmj.i1246.full.pdf

June 22, 2022 Moral compass

​I found this in a Japanese journal. It shows that we come with a moral compass. The babies used were eight months old and did not know any language. Preverbal infants observed a computer system that displayed animations on a screen. If they looked at an object on the screen long enough, the object would be destroyed. When the infants were shown videos showing a character injuring another character, the infants punished the aggressor by staring at the image onscreen and destroying it. (Kanakogi et al., 2022)  

Kanakogi, Y., Miyazaki, M., Takahashi, H., Yamamoto, H., Kobayashi, T., & Hiraki, K. (2022). Third-party punishment by preverbal infants. Nature Human Behaviour. https://doi.org/10.1038/S41562-022-01354-2 

June 16, 2022 Monkeypox update


There now have been a total of 1,882 cases confirmed worldwide outside of Africa. We do not know about countries that keep everything a secret like China, North Korea, etc. There is enough case data to see a pattern. The bulk of the cases are in homosexual men. Since it is spread by contact with the secessions from the pox, we should all wash our hands after touching public surfaces before touching our body.

(ECDC, n.d.)ECDC. (n.d.). Epidemiological update: Monkeypox multi-country outbreak. Retrieved June 5, 2022, from https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/news-events/epidemiological-update-monkeypox-multi-country-outbreak-0

June 12, 2022

We are in the midst of a mental health crisis. Social media is one of the drivers of this disaster. When people post, they are reluctant to give a depressing life story, even when accurate. Most people post that they are doing well, have an exciting, wonderful life, and have loving and supportive friends. Reading these stories is guaranteed to be depressing. I solve this problem by not using social media. My daughter checks social media less often than once a week. Social media would help me keep track of friends, but if I don’t often see someone, I soon find that I don’t care what they are doing. There are many studies on the mental damage done by social media. I reference one below. (Lambert, Barnstable, Minter, Cooper, & McEwan, 2022) I recommend using e-mail or only checking social media once a week or less.

Lambert, J., Barnstable, G., Minter, E., Cooper, J., & McEwan, D. (2022). Taking a One-Week Break from Social Media Improves Well-Being, Depression, and Anxiety: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Https://Home.Liebertpub.Com/Cyber, 25(5), 287–293. https://doi.org/10.1089/CYBER.2021.0324

​​June 5, 2022

Monkeypox is next to disrupt the world medical community.  Monkeypox has gone from a disease confined to central Africa to a disease spread worldwide. It has an overall fatality rate of 8.7% in Africa. This fatality rate compares with smallpox, which had a fatality rate of 30%. And COVID-19 has a reported fatality rate of less than 2%. Since many people have COVID-19 and do not have symptoms or don’t go for treatment, the actual fatality rate is much lower. As of May 30, 2022, the monkeypox fatality rate for Europe, North America, and Australia is zero, but there are only 557 cases worldwide outside of Africa. These are all new cases, and some may yet die.

Contact with the puss that comes from the pustules spreads the disease. It is not airborne. In the United States, most of the victims have been male homosexuals. This may not be relevant. The smallpox vaccination is believed to have held down the spread of the virus. The smallpox vaccine provides some protection. Smallpox vaccination has not been practiced for over 30 years. A small quantity of vaccine is available for monkeypox. If there is a significant outbreak, it will take time to produce enough to have an effect.   

My concern is the Wuhan Institute of Virology working on the genetics of the disease. This institution worked on the genetics of the virus that became COVID-19.    

Bunge, E. M., Hoet, B., Chen, L., Lienert, F., Weidenthaler, H., Baer, L. R., & Steffen, R. (2022). The changing epidemiology of human monkeypox—A potential threat? A systematic review. PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 16(2). https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PNTD.0010141

Epidemiological update: Monkeypox multi-country outbreak. Retrieved June 3, 2022, from https://www.ecdc.europa.eu/en/news-events/epidemiological-update-monkeypox-multi-country-outbreak-0

Pub med:  https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9795781/

WHO. (n.d.). Multi-country monkeypox outbreak in non-endemic countries. Retrieved May 31, 2022, from https://www.who.int/emergencies/disease-outbreak-news/item/2022-DON385

Yang, L., Tian, L., Li, L., Liu, Q., Guo, X., Zhou, Y., … Wang, Y. (2022). Efficient assembly of a large fragment of monkeypox virus genome as a qPCR template using dual-selection-based transformation-associated recombination. Virologica Sinica. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.VIRS.2022.02.009
 
May 30, 2022

Fatty Liver Disease has become an epidemic. 25% of the US population has excess fat in their liver. Excess liver fat soon turns into fibrosis and cirrhosis. There is little warning; the liver does not have pain cells. For someone that is physically active, the warning is fatigue. For someone who is sedentary, there may be death without warning.

We have become addicted to added sugars, including high fructose corn syrup, sucrose, raw sugar, maple syrup, and agave. All of these have at least 45% fructose. Fructose can not be used directly by the body; therefore, it is sent to the liver and converted into fat. Some of this fat is contained by the liver causing NAFLD (nonalcoholic fatty liver disease). Fructose is what makes fruits and the above products taste sweet. It also causes the hunger signal to be produced by the brain. This addiction to fructose has caused a significant increase in NAFLD. Using Splenda (sucralose) as a substitute is not a good idea; Some of the sucralose degradation products are chlorinated compounds toxic to the liver. I stay away from cookies, desserts, candy, and excess fruit. I find it easy to resist the temptation to consume high fructose foods. The below references describe the details. (Jensen et al., 2018) (Drożdż et al., 2022) (Maurice & Manousou, 2018)

Drożdż, K., Nabrdalik, K., Hajzler, W., Kwiendacz, H., Gumprecht, J., & Lip, G. Y. H. (2022). Metabolic-Associated Fatty Liver Disease (MAFLD), Diabetes, and Cardiovascular Disease: Associations with Fructose Metabolism and Gut Microbiota. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8746577/

Jensen, T., Abdelmalek, M. F., Sullivan, S., Nadeau, K. J., Green, M., Roncal, C., … Johnson, R. J. (2018). Fructose and sugar: A major mediator of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Journal of Hepatology, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29408694/

Maurice, J., & Manousou, P. (2018). Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clinical Medicine, 18(3), 245. https://doi.org/10.7861/CLINMEDICINE.18-3-245

May 26, 2022

The brain uses 20% of our energy. Glucose is the primary source of energy, with ketone bodies making up a small portion. There have been many theories on the cause of cognitive impairment (loss of ability to remember and think). They include Amyloid, Tau, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, bacteria, and simply normal aging. In all cases, the brain loses the ability to convert glucose to energy, causing cell death. The brain does not lose the ability to use ketone bodies for energy.

Matthew Taylor has done an excellent job of presenting the scientific literature that shows how we can stop and reverse the decline of cognitive ability using diet. Most of the studies are small because drug companies cannot make money by simply changing their diet. There are many controlled studies that show how this can be done. Most of the studies are small because drug companies cannot make money by simply changing our diet.  He presents several examples to show that a ketogenic diet will stop and reverse the decline of cognitive ability. A ketogenic diet limits carbohydrates and maximizes fat as a source of calories. This forces the liver to make ketone bodies from fat, which provides ketone bodies to the brain. A ketogenic diet must be converted slowly to prevent stomach and intestinal upset because the bacteria in our intestines need time to adjust. Reduction of carbohydrates should be done without a significant decrease in dietary fiber.

Dr. Taylor gave examples of four studies that showed improved cognition using ketosis. I have read at least a dozen more studies that demonstrated the same results.  One of the studies used medium-chain triglycerides to increase ketone production. Medium-chain triglycerides are more easily converted to ketone bodies than other plant and animal fats.
I subscribe to Medscape, which is a medical doctor education program. To view the article, skip past the sign-up for the education credits. 
https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/962844?sso=true&impID=3810473&uac=362670CN&src=wnl_tpal_211119_mscpedu

​May 21, 2022

Bryn Farnsworth von Cederwald discovered the same things that cause heart disease cause dementia, and other diseases. The Framingham study found an excellent way to predict heart disease, making it a way to predict a range of medical issues, including dementia, Liver disease, and kidney disease. (Cederwald, 2022) Wilson made the Framingham study tables into a program that is easy to access. The limit to using the Wilson program is the upper limit. I am 82 years old, so I put in 79 to make the program work. Since I am over 79, the predicted heart attack risk will be higher than the formula predicts. Use the Wilson program by going to the website and entering your data. The heart attack risk is similar to your dementia risk. It may be a wake-up call.      

Cederwald, B. F. von. (2022). Association of Cardiovascular Risk Trajectory With Cognitive Decline and Incident Dementia. Neurology, 98(20), e2013–e2022. https://n.neurology.org/content/98/20/e2013

Wilson, P. W. F. (n.d.). Framingham Risk Score for Hard Coronary Heart Disease - MDCalc. Retrieved May 20, 2022, from https://www.mdcalc.com/framingham-risk-score-hard-coronary-heart-disease#pearls-pitfalls

​May 14, 2022

There are four forms of physical training: Strengthening, Endurance (power), Flexibility, and Agility. I am 82 years old and need all four. Without strengthening, we will lose muscle mass and become easily subject to injury. Without endurance (power) training, we will lose heart and lung reserves that enable us to handle difficulties as simple as a slight cold or as violent as a run from a fire. Flexibility training is needed to pick things up, cut our toes, and escape from being trapped by furniture. Agility is required to prevent falling. All four are required. My feet were trapped a few days ago, and I fell onto rocks. There was little pain, and the fall did not change my day. That evening I looked and did find bruises. It did not hurt past the first few seconds. Flexibility and Agility are where I need more effort.
Comparison of Power Training vs Traditional Strength Training on Physical Function in Older Adults, A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis AnoopT.Balachandran, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2792175                                                                         Low Relative Skeletal Muscle Mass (Sarcopenia) in Older Persons Is Associated with Functional Impairment and Physical Disability Ian Janssen First published: 28 May 2002 Pub Med https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/12028177/ 

May 6, 2022

​I keep hearing fruits and vegetables as if they are the same thing. Being eaten is not good for plants. Over the years, plants have developed toxins to prevent being eaten. The toxins are usually specific to the animals that would otherwise eat them. Some toxins are for fungus, some are for bacteria, some are for lizards, some are for birds, some are for insects, and some are for mammals. Plants like broccoli and cabbage have toxins that are good for humans but kill microorganisms. Some, like milkweed, have evolved to be toxic to most organisms, but the monarch butterfly has evolved to be able to live on its juice.

Examples of toxins in vegetables include oxalic acid present in spinach, rhubarb, purslane, and parsley. It can bind with calcium and minerals, making them insoluble and thus reducing their bioavailability. Consumption of foods containing oxalates could cause kidney stones, decreased bone growth, cause renal toxicity, diarrhea, vomiting, convulsions, and coma.

Potatoes have poisonous glycoalkaloids such as solanine and chaconine. These compounds produce toxic effects in animals and insects and help defend from predators. The glycoalkaloids found in all potato tubers are not reduced by cooking and washing. The toxin is concentrated in the skin. The level of solanine and chaconine in potatoes is enough to produce harmful effects in humans.

Fruits, on the other hand, have a different strategy. Microorganisms must not eat the fruit. Fruit must not be eaten until the seeds are developed enough to survive being passed through the vector and deposited with the manure. Once the seeds are developed, the fruit must be tasty and nutritious to the vector. Fruits use fructose, which is addictive, will increase appetite, and lead to overeating. Human cells cannot use fructose; it must be converted to fat by the liver.  An example is the tomato. The leaves, stems, and unripe green fruit of tomato contain steroidal alkaloid tomatine. When consumed, tomatine leads to nervous excitement and digestive upset. The usage of tomato leaves for herbal tea has been responsible for death. Mature tomatoes don’t have any detectable quantity of tomatine.

Seeds contain toxins. The seeds of apple, apricot, plum, bitter almond, and peach contain poisonous cyanogenic glycosides. It is hydrolyzed to hydrogen cyanide and benzaldehyde. Hydrogen cyanide causes cyanide poisoning. Hydrogen cyanide causes a drop in blood pressure, rapid respiration, rapid pulse, headache, dizziness, mental confusion, vomiting, stomach pains, diarrhea, stupor, and convulsion followed by terminal coma. Consumption of a significant quantity of seeds may lead to a fatal dose.

Beans have high levels of toxins. Lotaustralin is a  cyanogenic glycoside found in austral trefoil, cassava, lima bean, and roseroot. It is the glycoside of methyl ethyl ketone cyanohydrins. They form hydrogen cyanide. Most beans are toxic unless processed.  (D, D, A, & I V, 2016)

D, S., D, T., A, S., & I V, A. (2016). A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF NATURAL TOXINS IN FOOD PLANTS. International Journal of Research in Ayurveda & Pharmacy, 7(2), 52–57. https://doi.org/10.7897/2277-4343.07256

​​May 2, 2022


There are now things that can be done about COVID-19; we now have two antiviral medications, ritonavir-boosted nirmatrelvir (Paxlovid, i.e., nirmatrelvir-ritonavir) and molnupiravir (Lagevrio). They are now available in the US. They are for treating patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 who are not currently hospitalized but are at high risk of developing severe disease. Nirmatrelvir-ritonavir and molnupiravir are approved for use only within five days of onset of COVID-19 symptoms. (Petty & Malani, 2022)

It has also been found that aspirin taken early will reduce the chance of hospitalization. (Osborne et al., 2021) If you suspect COVID-19 and do not have any conditions where bleeding could be of concern. Taking Asprin may reduce the risk of hospitalization.

Osborne, T. F., Veigulis, Z. P., Arreola, D. M., Mahajan, S. M., Roosli, E., & Curtin, C. M. (2021). Association of mortality and aspirin prescription for COVID-19 patients at the Veterans Health Administration. PLoS ONE, 16(2 February). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0246825

Petty, L. A., & Malani, P. N. (2022). Oral Antiviral Medications for COVID-19. JAMA. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2022.6876

​April 26, 2022

People in pain have a problem with opioids used to treat the pain. I had a problem with opioids when I had severe back pain. I was unable to think clearly, and I could not do my job. I discontinued the opioids and focused on my job. I was able to keep the pain out of my awareness. This was doing it the hard way. Elman and Borsook describe the common problem with this pain treatment. (Elman & Borsook, 2016)  Garland and associates conducted a randomized clinical trial of Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement. This trial demonstrated sustained efficacy of mindfulness for improving opioid misuse, opioid dosing, and chronic pain symptoms across nine months of follow-up. It is successful and can be used to avoid the problems associated with the continued use of opioids. (Garland 2022)

Elman, I., & Borsook, D. (2016). Common Brain Mechanisms of Chronic Pain and Addiction. Neuron, 89(1), 11–36. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.NEURON.2015.11.027

Garland, E. L., Hanley, A. W., Nakamura, Y., Barrett, J. W., Baker, A. K., Reese, S. E., … Donaldson, G. W. (2022). Mindfulness-Oriented Recovery Enhancement vs Supportive Group Therapy for Co-occurring Opioid Misuse and Chronic Pain in Primary Care: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 182(4), 407–417. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2022.0033

April 23, 2022

Hazelwood and associates found that lifelong obesity was related to endometrial cancer. “for every five extra body mass index...units, there was an 88% increased risk of endometrial cancer.” They identified molecular factors related to body mass index and endometrial cancer risk. The factor most significant was excess adiposity (Belly Fat) and fasting insulin. (Hazelwood et al., 2022)
Hazelwood, E., Sanderson, E., Tan, V. Y., Ruth, K. S., Frayling, T. M., Dimou, N., … Yarmolinsky, J. (2022). Identifying molecular mediators of the relationship between body mass index and endometrial cancer risk: a Mendelian randomization analysis. BMC Medicine 2022 20:1, 20(1), 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1186/S12916-022-02322-3

April 19, 2022

​Cardiovascular disease and Colorectal Cancer are increasing causes of death among U.S. adults. These are only two of the ways life expectancy is decreasing. Asprin has been recommended to reduce these diseases. Aspirin clings to red blood cells, lowers oxygen capacity, and prevents clotting. Reducing clotting both the clots in brain arteries causing strokes and the clots in arteries to the heart causing heart attacks are reduced. This reduced clotting also leads to internal bleeding, particularly intestinal bleeding. The United States Preventative Services Task Force found net benefit for adults who meet the following criteria: Aged 50 to 59 years, have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least ten years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least ten years.

The current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of initiating aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD and CRC in adults younger than 50 years or older than 70 years. They recommend only taking aspirin if a doctor recommends it for a specific condition.

https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer

April 11, 2022


On my website, I have information on avoiding and recovering from dementia. It is in both blog posts and is in the tab Age Successfully. Dementia was rare and is now common. The bottom line is our need to adopt the lifestyle of our ancestors when dementia was rare or the Amazonian tribe. It is simple: no added sugar, no omega 6 oils like Soybean oil, and moderate exercise.

Only about 1% of members of the Tsimane and Moseten peoples of the Bolivian Amazon suffer from dementia, compared with 11% of people aged 65 and older in the United States. (Staff, 2022)

Staff, M. (n.d.). Amazonian Indigenous Groups Have World’s Lowest Rate of Dementia. Retrieved April 11, 2022, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/970091?uac=362670CN&faf=1&sso=true&impID=4152735&src=mkm_ret_220410_mscpmrk_neuro_dementia

April 5, 2022

There have been many studies on sleep and how it affects health. Adequate sleep is essential for health. Perfect quiet is not required, but darkness is. The room should be dark enough that with your eyes closed, you cannot tell if you are waving your hand in front of your face. We can quickly adapt to car traffic or other regular sounds. Lights in the early evening should be red-shifted, and lights in the morning should be blue-shifted. This pattern of lights tells our brain that it is time to sleep in the night and get up in the morning. Many computers automatically redshift the light on the screen in the evening. Below is one on sleep and weight. (Watson et al., 2015) The American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Has sponsored many studies that demonstrate inadequate sleep increases cancer, heart disease, and many other health problems. (Tasali, Wroblewski, Kahn, Kilkus, & Schoeller, 2022)

Tasali, E., Wroblewski, K., Kahn, E., Kilkus, J., & Schoeller, D. A. (2022). Effect of Sleep Extension on Objectively Assessed Energy Intake Among Adults With Overweight in Real-life Settings: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Internal Medicine, 182(4), 365–374. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2021.8098

Watson, N. F., Badr, M. S., Belenky, G., Bliwise, D. L., Buxton, O. M., Buysse, D., … Heald, J. L. (2015). Recommended amount of sleep for a healthy adult: A joint consensus statement of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine and Sleep Research Society. Sleep, 38(6), 843–844. https://doi.org/10.5665/SLEEP.4716

April 4, 2022

Over 140 million people in the US have had the COVID-19 virus; this is over 40% of the population. The rate as of mid-February was 500,000 people a day contracting the disease. We are all going to get it sooner or later. As described in my February 24 post, it will become like the influenza virus. (Bajema et al., 2021)

Bajema, K. L., Wiegand, R. E., Cuffe, K., Patel, S. V., Iachan, R., Lim, T., … Edens, C. (2021). Estimated SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in the US as of September 2020. JAMA Internal Medicine, 181(4), 450–460. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2020.7976

March 28, 2022

I have read many studies showing the benefit of daily taking a multivitamin. It is impossible to obtain all the vitamins and minerals needed each day. The multivitamin supplement provides at least some of the required substances. They do not offer enough Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium, vitamin C, or vitamin D. These must be provided in the diet or supplements. Below is a recent study by Jill Hahn. Other studies have shown positive effects on cardiovascular health and other conditions.

"Our study provides new evidence that daily multivitamin supplementation may benefit cognitive function in older women and men, and the multivitamin effects may be more pronounced in participants with cardiovascular disease."(Hahn, n.d.)

Hahn, J. (n.d.). Multivitamins, but Not Cocoa, Tied to Slowed Brain Aging. Retrieved March 26, 2022, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/962772?uac=362670CN&faf=1&sso=true&impID=4116527&src=mkm_ret_220326_mscpmrk_neuro_alzheimers#vp_2

March 22, 2022

We must exercise to some extent every day. This can be walking for 30 minutes or using the gym equipment for 30 minutes. At least three times a week, the exercise should be vigorous enough to cause rapid breathing. If you have health problems or are obese, it is not good to start immediately but work up to 30 minutes and three times a week vigorous activity. If you have been sitting for a long time, a doctor should be consulted on how quickly to reach this minimum activity level. Without sufficient activity, cancer (Moore et al., 2016) and heart disease (Wilmot et al., 2012) chance increase.

Moore, S. C., Lee, I. M., Weiderpass, E., Campbell, P. T., Sampson, J. N., Kitahara, C. M., … Patel, A. V. (2016). Association of leisure-time physical activity with risk of 26 types of cancer in 1.44 million adults. JAMA Internal Medicine, 176(6), 816–825. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamainternmed.2016.1548

Wilmot, E. G., Edwardson, C. L., Achana, F. A., Davies, M. J., Gorely, T., Gray, L. J., … Biddle, S. J. H. (2012). Sedentary time in adults and the association with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and death: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 55(11), 2895–2905. https://doi.org/10.1007/S00125-012-2677-Z

March 14, 2022

​Epidemiological studies compare population members to see if any statistically relevant factors are correlated. For example, it is possible to look at voters in Duval County, Florida, and compare lung cancer rates of smokers to nonsmokers. A study of the relationship of alcohol consumption to lung cancer would find a correlation. This could be published, and cigarette manufacturers would quote it to divert attention away from the danger of cigarettes. This would be wrong since cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption are correlated. This is how the bad advice ends up in popular and scientific literature. Lesser and others found that studies funded by manufacturers of food and beverage products never show the adverse effects of their sponsor's product.

           Another example is Omega 3 oils. Diener and associates examined studies of Omega 3 oils; they found epidemiologic studies suggesting that omega-3 acids may have a benefit: cardiovascular disease, lipid disorders, type 2 diabetes, cancer, the tolerability of chemotherapy, Alzheimer's disease, depression, heart failure, lumbar disk prolapse, menopausal difficulties and premenstrual syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, periodontitis, retinopathy, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. On careful analysis, all were found to be of no benefit for these conditions. It takes clinical and biochemical studies to confirm any benefit before taking action on these studies.

Diener, H.-C. (n.d.). Time to Cut Bait on Omega-3's Neuroprotective Claims. Retrieved March 13, 2022, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/966683?uac=362670CN&faf=1&sso=true&impID=4083846&src=mkm_ret_220313_mscpmrk_neuro_ACTRIMS

Lesser, L. I., Ebbeling, C. B., Goozner, M., Wypij, D., & Ludwig, D. S. (2007). Relationship between Funding Source and Conclusion among Nutrition-Related Scientific Articles. PLoS Medicine, 4(1), 0041–0046. https://doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PMED.0040005

March 7, 2022

For Alzheimer's disease prevention and cure:

Read the Cunnane papers and the Seneff paper, to understand the principles of changing the brain from glucose fuel to ketone fuel. We need to provide the medium chain fatty acids that can be converted to ketones and reduce glucose availability to force the conversion. The conversion happens when in or partially in ketosis. This treatment is based on the theory that the brain loses its ability to use glucose and does not lose its ability to use ketones for energy. The brain can grow more cells and more synapses, but this is slow. It is important that this treatment be started early before a significant part of the brain is lost. If Cunnane is right, amyloid and tau proteins can be thought of as brain scar tissue and not the cause of the problem.

Any attempt to cure Alzheimer’s will only work if the subject has a reason to be intellectually active. There needs to be life purpose or life goals. If the subject is simply in a retirement facility waiting to die, they have no incentive to improve their intellectually capacity. Without life purpose, why not have Alzheimer’s, in later stages it is less stressful.

The Alzheimer’s cure will cure diabetes first. This is the first step and will reduce insulin that would will prevent ketone metabolism. 

Take two tablespoons of MCT oil three time a day.  MCT oil can have a laxative effect and can cause digestive upset. It may need to be added incrementally.

Use coconut oil, lard or Tallow for cooking.

Take 3 grams of Turmeric each day to clear amyloid plaque proteins from the brain. This is a high dose of turmeric compared to the lifelong plan.

Eat two eggs a day to increase cholesterol availability.

Eliminate added sugars to reduce A1c and Eliminate potatoes, sweet potatoes, rice, corn, bread, carrots, beets, and other starchy foods. 

Eat 50 grams of protein a day. This is about two McDonalds patties. An egg has 7 grams of protein. Nuts are from 18 to 25% protein and beans are 8 to 12% protein

Take an omega 3 oil supplement that has DHA.

Reduce carbohydrates to less than 10% of calories while maintaining fiber intake.

Physical exercise and mental exercise are needed to exercise the brain. Both physical and mental exercise encourage new brain cell formation and synapse formation.

Use intermittent fasting to clear inactive proteins and mitochondria.  I recommend 18 hours a day fasting. I fast from 6:00PM to Noon the next day.

This diet may be needed for months to slowly bring back lost cognitive function. Because glucose metabolism has been lost this diet may be needed forever.

Cunnane, S. C., Courchesne-Loyer, A., St-Pierre, V., Vandenberghe, C., Pierotti, T., Fortier, M., … Castellano, C. A. (2016). Can ketones compensate for deteriorating brain glucose uptake during aging? Implications for the risk and treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1367(1), 12–20. https://doi.org/10.1111/NYAS.12999

Seneff, S., Wainwright, G., & Mascitelli, L. (2011, April 1). Nutrition and Alzheimer’s disease: The detrimental role of a high carbohydrate diet. European Journal of Internal Medicine. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2010.12.017

March 3, 2022

Red meat and processed red meat have been linked to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. This belief comes from studies funded mainly by vegan and vegetarian organizations. Colon cancer likelihood was the focus of most of these studies. Erin L. Van Blarigan and others published their study in the Journal of the American Medical Association. They showed that red meat and processed meat did not increase the risk of dying or reoccurrence of colon cancer in subjects that had or have colon cancer. Since these subjects are the most vulnerable, this is a good reason to discount any vegan and vegetarian-funded studies. Meat is good for you in an amount that provides sufficient protein. (Van Blarigan et al., 2022)

Van Blarigan, E. L., Ou, S., Bainter, T. M., Fuchs, C. S., Niedzwiecki, D., Zhang, S., … Meyerhardt, J. A. (2022). Associations Between Unprocessed Red Meat and Processed Meat With Risk of Recurrence and Mortality in Patients With Stage III Colon Cancer. JAMA Network Open, 5(2), e220145–e220145. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2022.0145

March 2, 2022

​Over 140 million people in the US have had the COVID-19 virus; this is over 40% of the population. The rate as of mid-February was 500,000 people a day contracting the disease. We are all going to get it sooner or later. As described in my February 24 post, it will become like the influenza virus. (Bajema et al., 2021)

Bajema, K. L., Wiegand, R. E., Cuffe, K., Patel, S. V., Iachan, R., Lim, T., … Edens, C. (2021). Estimated SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence in the US as of September 2020. JAMA Internal Medicine, 181(4), 450–460. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2020.7976

February 24, 2022

The COVID-19 pandemic has been made worse by the arrogant scientists and the power intoxicated politicians. The scientists made statements that were not true or did not have good data to back up these statements. The politicians believed that they could use their power to solve the problem. As a result, the population does not believe anyone and is suspicious of any mandate.

The truth is masks are partially effective. If everyone wears them, the transmission is reduced by about 60%. This sounds good, but 40% is still significant. The vaccine does have side effects. One of the worst is myocarditis, inflammation of the heart's lining. The vaccine can also cause seizures. I had a seizure, and two other people I know also had a seizure because of the vaccine. Myocarditis most affects young men. (Oster et al., 2022)

 Other side effects would be expected to be more prevalent in those older and less healthy subjects. In my August 6, 2021 blog post, I predicted the virus's progression from deadly to less deadly and increased transmission. Both have happened. The latest variant is less lethal; symptoms occur after the virus load peaks, and 40% of the victims do not show symptoms. The vaccine loses effectiveness over time. We will all get the virus or have had it and do not know it. People who have been vaccinated are less likely to require hospitalization and have a near-zero chance of dying.

The bottom line is that we will get the virus sooner or later. We need to make up our own minds on getting the vaccine. In my opinion, it is worth the risk of the vaccine side effects to do better when we get the virus.

Oster, M. E., Shay, D. K., Su, J. R., Gee, J., Creech, C. B., Broder, K. R., … Shimabukuro, T. T. (2022). Myocarditis Cases Reported After mRNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccination in the US From December 2020 to August 2021. JAMA, 327(4), 331–340. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2021.24110

February 14, 0222

This post is a reinforcement of my February 6 article.

Carrie M. Elks & Joseph Francis found that metabolic syndrome (MetS) caused general inflammation, increasing the risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. (Elks & Francis, 2010) MetS damages all organs. Fructose causes abdominal fat that contributes to this inflammation. Sonia S. Anand and colleagues discovered that abdominal fat was a cause of loss of cognitive function. (Anand et al., 2022) Periodontal disease (Idrissi Janati, Karp, Latulippe, Charlebois, & Emami, 2022) and certain species of intestinal bacteria (Meyer et al., 2022) were associated with Alzheimer’s disease. Both of these are associated with diet. Diets that promote gingivitis and an imbalance of intestinal bacteria are also those that cause MetS.

Anand, S. S., Friedrich, M. G., Lee, D. S., Awadalla, P., Després, J. P., Desai, D., … Investigators, C. A. of H. H. and M. (CAHHM) and the P. U. and R. E. (PURE) S. (2022). Evaluation of Adiposity and Cognitive Function in Adults. JAMA Network Open, 5(2), e2146324–e2146324. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2021.46324

Elks, C. M., & Francis, J. (2010). Central adiposity, systemic inflammation, and the metabolic syndrome. Current Hypertension Reports, 12(2), 99–104. https://doi.org/10.1007/S11906-010-0096-4

Idrissi Janati, A., Karp, I., Latulippe, J.-F., Charlebois, P., & Emami, E. (2022). Periodontal disease as a risk factor for sporadic colorectal cancer: results from COLDENT study. Cancer Causes & Control, 33(3), 463–472. https://doi.org/10.1007/S10552-021-01541-Y

Meyer, K., Lulla, A., Debroy, K., Shikany, J. M., Yaffe, K., Meirelles, O., & Launer, L. J. (2022). Association of the Gut Microbiota With Cognitive Function in Midlife. JAMA Network Open, 5(2), e2143941–e2143941. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2021.43941

February 6, 2022

​Alzheimer’s disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness.
Alzheimer’s has been studied with microscopes and other scientific equipment. I studied it with a wide-angle lens. Alzheimer’s disease was rare and is now common and becoming a pandemic. As a good scientist, I ask what has changed.
Our genetics have not changed.
We are getting older, which would explain a small part of the increase.
We are sitting more and watching TV or on a computer.
Smoking has declined. That should not increase Alzheimer’s
We are consuming a great deal of added sugars that include fructose.

Our disease increase correlates with the increased intake of added sugars, including sucrose, high fructose corn syrup, maple syrup, agave, and honey. If we count all of the sugars in ketchup and processed foods two hundred years ago, the average American ate only 2 pounds of added sugar a year.

Added sugar consumption
1814 -   2 pounds per year
1970 -   123 pounds per year
2014 -   152 pounds per year

Consuming 152 pounds of added sugar in one year is nearly 3 pounds per week or 4/10 of a pound a day.   (NH Health, 2014)

We are also consuming Omega 6 seed oils. These oils cause inflammation that damages all tissue, including the heart, brain, kidneys, and pituitary.

Consumption of Omega 6 oils in Kilograms per person per year

                                1814       1909       1999       Percent increase
Soybean                 0              0.01        11.6        116,300
Canola1                  0              0.01        0.8          16,700
Safflower3             0              0.04        0.05           25
Cottonseed            0              0.4          0.31          −21

 Brain glucose uptake is impaired in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A key question is whether cognitive decline can be delayed if this brain energy defect is partly corrected or bypassed early in the disease. The principal ketones (also called ketone bodies), β-hydroxybutyrate and acetoacetate, are the brain’s primary physiological alternative fuel to glucose. Three studies in mild-to-moderate AD have shown that brain ketone uptake is not different from that in healthy age-matched controls, unlike with glucose. Published clinical trials demonstrate that increasing ketone availability to the brain via moderate nutritional ketosis has a  beneficial effect on cognitive outcomes in mild-to-moderate AD and mild cognitive impairment. Nutritional ketosis can be safely achieved by a high-fat ketogenic diet, by supplements providing 20–70 g/day of medium-chain triglycerides containing the eight- and ten-carbon fatty acids octanoate and decanoate, or by ketone esters. Given the acute dependence of the brain on its energy supply, it seems reasonable that the development of therapeutic strategies aimed at AD mandates consideration of how the underlying problem of deteriorating brain fuel supply can be corrected or delayed. 

Trials using medium-chain-triglycerides and reducing sugar and other carbohydrates have successfully halted and reversed cognitive decline. 

Physical and mental exercises are not effective in preventing a decline in cognitive function. There are no drugs that have been shown to stop and reverse the decline.

Age successfully pages 135-136 provides the diet to prevent and reverse cognitive decline.

Age Successfully Second Edition: Black, Robert Harrison: 9798646852916: Amazon.com: Pages 117-121 and 135-136 Books. (2020). Retrieved February 6, 2022, from https://www.amazon.com/Successfully-Second-Robert-Harrison-Black/dp/B088T5GJ8B

Chatterjee, S., Peters, S. A. E., Woodward, M., Arango, S. M., Batty, G. D., Beckett, N., … Huxley, R. R. (2016). Type 2 diabetes as a risk factor for dementia in women compared with men: A pooled analysis of 2.3 million people comprising more than 100,000 cases of dementia. Diabetes Care, 39(2), 300–307. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc15-1588

Cunnane, S. C., Courchesne-Loyer, A., Vandenberghe, C., St-Pierre, V., Fortier, M., Hennebelle, M., … Castellano, C. A. (2016). Can ketones help rescue brain fuel supply in later life? Implications for cognitive health during aging and the treatment of alzheimer’s disease. Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience, 9(JUL). https://doi.org/10.3389/fnmol.2016.00053

de la Rubia Ortí JE1, García-Pardo MP2, Drehmer E1, Sancho Cantus D3, Julián Rochina M4, Aguilar MA5, H. Y. I. (n.d.). Improvement of Main Cognitive Functions in Patients with Alzheimer’s Disease after Treatment with Coconut Oil Enriched Mediterranean Diet: A Pilot ... - PubMed - NCBI. Retrieved April 27, 2020, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30056419

Kane, M.D., R. L., Butler, Ph.D., M.B.A., M., & Fink, M.D., M.P.H., H. A. (2017). Interventions To Prevent Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Clinical Alzheimer’s-Type Dementia. https://doi.org/10.23970/AHRQEPCCER188

Lambrechts, D. A. J. E., Bovens, M. J. M., De la Parra, N. M., Hendriksen, J. G. M., Aldenkamp, A. P., & Majoie, M. J. M. (2013). Ketogenic diet effects on cognition, mood, and psychosocial adjustment in children. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, 127(2), 103–108. https://doi.org/10.1111/J.1600-0404.2012.01686.X

NH Health. (2014). How much sugar do you eat? Retrieved September 8, 2019, from https://www.dhhs.nh.gov/dphs/nhp/documents/sugar.pdf

Seneff, S., Wainwright, G., & Mascitelli, L. (2011, April 1). Nutrition and Alzheimer’s disease: The detrimental role of a high carbohydrate diet. European Journal of Internal Medicine. Elsevier B.V. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejim.2010.12.017

February 2, 2022

Medscape is an education site for doctors to obtain education credits for their licenses. I  read it every day and sometimes take the course for my non-existent doctor’s license. The latest was a course that covered vitamin D3. The study was given by Pam R. Taub, MD, FACC, FASPC; JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH, MACP; Michael F. Holick, MD, Ph.D. Vitamin D is needed by every cell. Vitamin D regulates cellular growth and a variety of genes. As a result, many association studies have related vitamin D deficiency with increased risk for autoimmune disorders like type 1 diabetes, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis, and increased risk for cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, infectious diseases, and some malignancies. Adequate vitamin D caused a statistically significant 13% reduction in cancer death. They did an intervention trial and took vitamin D–deficient and D–insufficient adults and gave them 600, 4000, or 10,000 units a day; they saw no toxicity. They think that following the Endocrine Society practice guidelines is reasonable. They recommend for all adults 1500-2000 units a day. They recognize that if you’re obese, you need two to three times more. For one of the doctor’s patients, he typically has them on 3000-5000 units a day.(Wilkinson et al., 2020)

https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/959893?uac=362670CN&faf=1&%22YYMMDD%22%2C%20FormatDate(NOW()%2C%22YYMMDD%22%2Csrc=cardio_acc_coe_Jan22&sso=true&impID=3981321#vp_4

January 28, 2022

Dr. Pedro F. Saint-Maurice and others studied how physical activity could affect deaths. They studied 4840 participants and found that increasing physical activity by 10, 20, or 30 minutes per day was associated with a 6.9%, 13.0%, and 16.9% decrease in deaths per year.

Adding 10 minutes per day of physical activity resulted in an estimated 111 174 preventable deaths per year in the general population.  

For 20 minutes 209, 459  preventable deaths

for 30 minutes 272 297 preventable deaths (Saint-Maurice et al., 2022)

Dr. Chao (Cao, Friedenreich, & Yang, 2022)and others looked at the association of Daily Sitting Time and Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Survival Among US Cancer Survivors. They found that a longer sitting time per day was associated with an increased chance of cancer reoccurrence.

Amanda E. Paluch studied steps per Day and All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged Adults. They found that higher daily step volume was associated with a lower risk of premature all-cause mortality among Black and White middle-aged women and men. (Paluch et al., 2021)

Exercise is important, but diet is also required

Cao, C., Friedenreich, C. M., & Yang, L. (2022). Association of Daily Sitting Time and Leisure-Time Physical Activity With Survival Among US Cancer Survivors. JAMA Oncology. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAONCOL.2021.6590

Paluch, A. E., Gabriel, K. P., Fulton, J. E., Lewis, C. E., Schreiner, P. J., Sternfeld, B., … Carnethon, M. R. (2021). Steps per Day and All-Cause Mortality in Middle-aged Adults in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study. JAMA Network Open, 4(9), e2124516–e2124516. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2021.24516

Saint-Maurice, P. F., Graubard, B. I., Troiano, R. P., Berrigan, D., Galuska, D. A., Fulton, J. E., & Matthews, C. E. (2022). Estimated Number of Deaths Prevented Through Increased Physical Activity Among US Adults. JAMA Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2021.7755

​January 21, 2022

​​The Journal of the American Medical Association has a worth while article that shows how the country should make a new normal. It is too long for the blog but is a good read. Just go to this link: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2787944?ftag=MSF0951a18

January 19, 2022

Writing in Ageing Research Reviews, Nicola Veronese showed that influenza vaccination was associated with a significantly lower risk of dementia. He suggested vaccination of older people against influenza may also aid in the prevention of dementia. COVID-19 is an upper respiratory infection like influenza. It may be that protection from COVID-19 may also reduce dementia. (Veronese et al., 2022)

Veronese, N., Demurtas, J., Smith, L., Michel, J. P., Barbagallo, M., Bolzetta, F., … Maggi, S. (2022). Influenza vaccination reduces dementia risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ageing Research Reviews, 73, 101534. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ARR.2021.101534

January 12, 2022

Doctor Dara Abraham wrote a good list of reasons doctors should give their patients why they should get the COVID-19 vaccine. Even though I had a bad reaction to both the second injection and the booster, I believe that getting vaccinated is good. His list is below:

If you are not vaccinated, this virus will find you within the next few weeks and likely lead to severe symptoms.

Long-haul symptoms from COVID-19 infection are still possible even for people who contract a milder case of the Omicron variant.

The monoclonal antibody and antiviral treatments recently approved by the Food and Drug Administration for pre-exposure prevention of COVID-19 are limited. For many reasons, now is not the best time to play Russian roulette and intentionally get infected with a "mild" variant.

There are not enough testing sites or over-the-counter rapid COVID tests available to keep up with the demand, and the latter is cost-prohibitive for many people.

During the next few weeks, emergency care for unforeseen non–COVID-related illnesses, such as a sudden heart attack or stroke, may be affected by the shortage of medical providers because of illness, quarantine, and burnout.

There will be fewer first responders, including EMTs, police officers, and firefighters, because of COVID quarantines from illness and exposure.

Although most Americans oppose temporary shutdowns, de facto shutdowns might be necessary because of the absence of healthy, COVID-negative individuals to maintain a functional society.

Omicron math is deceiving, since the risk of hospitalization with Omicron appears to be far lower than with the Delta variant. However, the higher volume of infections with Omicron will offset the lower severity leading to comparable hospitalizations.

Omicron has made it difficult for some schools to reopen after the holiday break, and reopening might become even more difficult as the surge progresses. Many schools already were in desperate need of substitute teachers, bus drivers, and additional staff necessary for COVID safety precautions before the emergence of the Omicron variant.

And, for a less altruistic reason, as if the nine reasons above weren't enough. Suppose infections continue, especially among the unvaccinated where the virus mutates the most. In that case, this can lead to a trifecta variant that evades the immune system and is highly infectious, and causes severe disease in both the unvaccinated and the vaccinated. (Dara, n.d.)

Dara, A. (n.d.). 10 Reasons Why a "Small" Virus Could Cause Big Problems. Retrieved January 12,2022, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/966132?uac=362670CN&faf=1&sso=true&impID=3941691&src=WNL_infocu9_220112_MSCPEDIT 

January 7, 2022

This blog entry is number two in a sequence on how we can prevent cognitive decline and reverse it in the early stages. In the Medscape Friday, January 7, 2022 issue JoAnn E. Manson, MD, DrPH, reposted on a study now in process on how multivitamins may slow cognitive aging in older adults. The underlying hypothesis that multivitamins benefit cognition stems from evidence that essential nutrient deficiencies in B12, folate, vitamin D, and other micronutrients have been linked to accelerated cognitive decline and dementia in observational studies. (Manson, n.d.) We now have enough data to recommend everyone take multivitamins.  

Manson, J. A. (n.d.). Multivitamins Slow Cognitive Aging in Older Adults. Retrieved January 6, 2022, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/963748?uac=362670CN&faf=1&sso=true&impID=3926071&src=WNL_infocu9_220105_MSCPEDIT

 December 31, 2021


Intermittent fasting
Most clinical studies are funded by food companies, drug companies, or organizations with an agenda like vegetarian organizations.  These funding sources make it hard to get to the truth.  The things that increase the chance of Alzheimer’s, Heart disease, and many health declines attributed to aging can be prevented without drugs but only require simple lifestyle changes.  Intermittent fasting is simple and does not enrich drug or food companies.  Most people spend their day eating carbohydrates that fuel their muscles and brain with sugar.  Every time their blood sugar goes low, they experience hunger pains.  Patikorn et al., 2021 and Patterson et al., 2015 have many references worth reading.  I am 82 years old; I ride my bicycle and work out most days.  I stay healthy by fasting 18 hours a day.  I only eat between Noon and 6:00 PM.  It is not hard to do.  After 12 hours, it is 6:00 AM, and my body chemistry is using fat for fuel and is using autophagy to clear cells that are not working as they should.  I don’t have any hunger pains.  For the next six hours, my liver is making ketones from fat.  These ketones provide an optimum fuel for my brain and muscles.  I like to exercise while fasting because fat burning is efficient and provides optimum energy.  When it is Noon, I usually need reminding to eat.  Some people find skipping a day or days as easy to do.  I don’t recommend it because we need a constant source of protein to prevent sarcopenia.      

Patikorn, C., Roubal, K., Veettil, S. K., Chandran, V., Pham, T., Yeong, ;, … Chaiyakunapruk, N. (2021). Intermittent Fasting and Obesity-Related Health Outcomes: An Umbrella Review of Meta-analyses of Randomized Clinical Trials.  JAMA Network Open, 4(12), e2139558–e2139558. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2021.39558

Patterson, R. E., Laughlin, G. A., LaCroix, A. Z., Hartman, S. J., Natarajan, L., Senger, C. M., … Gallo, L. C. (2015).  Intermittent Fasting and Human Metabolic Health.  Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, 115(8), 1203–1212.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2015.02.018

December 24, 2021

When I first heard of a study linking Gum disease with Alzheimer’s disease, I thought, of course, people with Alzheimer’s disease forget to brush their teeth. Later fundamental biochemical research has shown that it is true. The gingivitis bacteria can get in through the gums and travel to the brain. Clearing the infection is shown to improve brain functioning.  Brushing, rinsing, and flossing are not only good for your teeth and breath but are also good for your brain. (Anderson, n.d.)

Anderson, P. (n.d.). Gum Disease Bacteria a New Treatment Target for Alzheimer’s? Retrieved November 25, 2021, from https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/963574?uac=362670CN&faf=1&sso=true&impID=3824361&src=wnl_edit_tpal#vp_2

December 18, 2021

Qiuyue Ma and others did a review of 29 776 306 test reports. They found that .25% of those tested and 40% of those tested positive were asymptomatic. This data means if you randomly encounter 1,000 people next week, two or more will have COVID-19, and neither of you will know it. Some of the data was before the latest variant that is more likely to spread and more likely to be asymptomatic. (Ma et al., 2021)     In a study of 306 710 members of Maccabi Healthcare Services who were 40 years and older. They found that the chance of contracting COVID-19 was 6.6% with two doses, and with the three doses, the chance was 1.8%  (Patalon et al., 2021). These results were as I predicted in my August 6, 2021 post. The bottom line: If you are in good health, get all three shots and live your life without fear. If you get the virus, it will be mild and perhaps asymptomatic. If you have a morbidity factor like diabetes, are obese, or have another factor get the three shots and do what is necessary to fix your morbidity.     

Ma, Q., Liu, J., Liu, Q., Kang, L., Liu, R., Jing, W., … Liu, M. (2021). Global Percentage of Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Infections Among the Tested Population and Individuals With Confirmed COVID-19 Diagnosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Network Open, 4(12), e2137257–e2137257. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2021.37257

Patalon, T., Gazit, S., Pitzer, V. E., Prunas, O., Warren, J. L., Weinberger, D. M., … Sagol, K. (2021). Odds of Testing Positive for SARS-CoV-2 Following Receipt of 3 vs 2 Doses of the BNT162b2 mRNA Vaccine. JAMA Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMAINTERNMED.2021.7382

December 11, 2021

This post is about our financial health, not physical health. I would avoid Chinese stocks. They pay little or no dividends, and as far as I can see, no money will ever come out of China. The country is corrupt, and there is no way to know a companies financials. There is a risk of Chinese companies being delisted by the American stock exchanges.

An example is Alibaba, with the ticker symbol BABA. The company does not pay a dividend, and there isn't a way to see where their profit is going. The market value is $331 Billion. The company president said something that the communist party did not like and hasn't been seen in public since. The stock has been down since $309 per share in October 2020. It is now $125. They market products made by slave labor, so I can't buy their products for ethical reasons. We need to Runaway from Chinese products and stocks. 

December 7, 2021


Nicola P. Klein and others published a study of risks associated with the COVID-19 vaccination in the Journal of the American Medical Association. It is challenging to study the risk associated with the vaccination. In most clinical studies, subjects are randomly assigned to the standard treatment or the trial treatment. The trial treatment is believed to be better.  Some subjects will die with any treatment, and some will have medical problems. Some subjects will die without any treatment, and some will have medical problems.  After the study, we can analyze the results statistically to see the difference. A funeral home only sees those that die.  It is unethical to treat either group with a treatment not as good as the standard treatment. For vaccine giving a placebo to one group would not be ethical. Dr. Klein's team did the best by using records from institutions that provided the vaccine and also medical care. This way, they could capture all of the vaccine's adverse effects.  They looked at the results of the virus shortly after the vaccine and later when the effects were less likely to have an impact. They found that there was no significant difference between the two groups. The vaccine did not cause medical problems, including acute myocardial infarction, Bell palsy, cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, myocarditis/pericarditis, pulmonary embolism, stroke, and thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. 2

https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2784015?widget=personalizedcontent&previousarticle=2787065

December 3, 2021

Mahshid Dehghan and others investigated the role of fats and carbohydrates in deaths and heart disease. The number of subjects was large enough that there were  5796 deaths and 4784 major cardiovascular disease events during the study. They found that higher carbohydrate consumption was associated with a greater chance of deaths, and higher fat consumption was associated with a lower chance of deaths.  They found that saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, and polyunsaturated fat were equally associated with a lower chance of dying.  Higher consumption of saturated fats was associated with a lower chance of stroke.

Dehghan, M., Mente, A., Zhang, X., Swaminathan, S., Li, W., Mohan, V., … Mapanga, R. (2017). Associations of fats and carbohydrate intake with cardiovascular disease and mortality in 18 countries from five continents (PURE): a prospective cohort study. The Lancet, 390(10107), 2050–2062. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(17)32252-3

November 23, 2021

Stop brain loss

The brain uses 20% of our energy. Glucose is the primary source of energy, with ketone bodies usually making up about 5%. There have been many theories on the cause of cognitive impairment (loss of ability to remember and think). The proposed causes include Amyloid, Tau, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, bacteria, and simply normal aging. In all cases, the brain loses the ability to convert glucose to energy, causing cell death. The brain does not lose the ability to use ketone bodies for energy.

Matthew Taylor has done an excellent job of presenting the scientific literature that shows how we can stop and reverse the decline of cognitive ability using diet. There are many controlled studies that show how this can be done. Most of these studies are small because drug companies cannot make money simply recommending a diet change.  He presents several examples to show that a ketogenic diet will stop and reverse the decline of cognitive ability. A ketogenic diet limits carbohydrates and maximizes fat as a source of calories. This forces the liver to make ketone bodies from fat, which provides ketone bodies to the brain. Patients must slowly convert to a ketogenic diet to prevent stomach and intestinal upset because the bacteria in our intestines need time to adjust. Reduction of carbohydrates should be done without a significant decrease in dietary fiber.

Dr. Taylor gave examples of four studies that showed improved cognition using ketosis. I have read at least a dozen more studies that demonstrated the same results.  One of the studies he referenced used medium-chain triglycerides to increase ketone production. Medium-chain triglycerides are more easily converted to ketone bodies than other plant and animal fats. I replace the oil in Ken’s Simple Vinaigrette dressing with Medium-chain triglycerides oil.

The link is to Medscape, which is a medical doctor education program I receive. To view the article, skip past the sign-up for the education credits.  

https://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/962844?sso=true&impID=3810473&uac=362670CN&src=wnl_tpal_211119_mscpedu

November 20, 2021


COVID-19 has taken its toll, but we still are losing more to heart disease and cancer. Many people who succumbed to COVID-19 only died because they had heart disease and cancer. The chart below shows deaths per year in thousands.

Year                                                       2015       2016      2017    2018      2019       2020

Total deaths                                        2,712       2,744     2,813   2,839     2,854      3,358                    

Heart Dsease                                         633          635        647        655     659         690  

Cancer                                                     595          598        599       599      599         598

COVID-16                                                                                                                          345

Unintentional injuries                            146         161         169     167       173          192

Stroke                                                         140         142         146     147       150         150

Alzheimer's                                                110         116         121     122       121         133

Diabetes                                                      79            80          83        84         87          110

The population of the United States continues to age, so some of the higher death rates are simply due to having an older population. It does not explain the magnitude shown above. Our life expectancy is declining. Even before the COVID-16, life expectancy has gone down. For example, it was 78.9 years in 2014 and 78.7 years in 2018. At least one-half of the deaths from heart disease, cancer, stroke and Alzheimer’s, and diabetes are caused by added sugar, nutrition deficiencies, and a sedentary lifestyle.  We could live longer lives if we stopped eating sweets, ate more dietary fiber, turned off the computer games, cell phones, and the TV.  I was on jury duty last week. During the breaks, I walked up and down the hall while the others sat and stared at their cell phones.

Ahmad, F. B., & Anderson, R. N. (2021). The Leading Causes of Death in the US for 2020. JAMA, 325(18), 1829–1830. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2021.5469

Venkataramani, A. S., O’Brien, R., & Tsai, A. C. (2021). Declining Life Expectancy in the United States: The Need for Social Policy as Health Policy. JAMA, 325(7), 621–622. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2020.26339

November 13, 2021

There are many artificial sweeteners on the market. They are described in my book  Age Successfully. This piece is focused on sucralose, which is the active ingredient in Splenda. Sucralose was initially developed as an insecticide. It was not successful because it was not biodegradable enough and not sufficiently toxic to insects.  It was accidentally found to be sweet. There has been no incentive for researchers to discover the problems with sucralose.  Scientists have been able to show the toxic and cancer risks. Schiffman and others reported epidemiological studies that demonstrated that sucralose use increased the risk for metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. They also showed sucralose use led to weight gain. Sucralose interacts with drugs: depending on the drug, it may increase or decrease the drug effect. The degradation products of sucralose are both toxic and cancer-causing.  Sucralose causes reductions and imbalances in the composition of intestinal bacteria. Bacteria reduction plays a role in numerous medical conditions, including allergies, gastric cancer, Crohn's disease, obesity, and inflammatory bowel disease. Finally, heating sucralose causes decomposition to form toxic and cancer-causing compounds.  (Schiffman & Rother, 2013)  

Dalenberg and others found sucralose elevated glucose and insulin levels in a small study of obese women at increased risk for further weight gain and development of diabetes. They also found an overall reduction of the existing intestinal bacteria. Beneficial bacteria, including lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, were disproportionately affected compared to pathogenic bacteria, including enterobacteria. (Dalenberg et al., 2020)

In conclusion, Splenda is not splendid but a serious detriment to good health.

Dalenberg, J. R., Patel, B. P., Denis, R., Veldhuizen, M. G.Nakamura,Y., Vinke, P. C., … Small, D. M. (2020). Short-Term Consumption of Sucralose with, but Not without, Carbohydrate Impairs Neural and Metabolic Sensitivity to Sugar in Humans. Cell Metabolism, 31(3), 493-502.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cmet.2020.01.014

Schiffman, S. S., & Rother, K. I. (2013). Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview Of Biological Issues. Http://Dx.Doi.Org/10.1080/10937404.2013.842523, 16(7), 399–451. https://doi.org/10.1080/10937404.2013.842523  

November 9, 2021

​​We now know more about the COVID-19 virus. The Maderna vaccine mRNA-1273 protects longer than  BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) but, both provide a substantial reduction in the risk of hospitalization. Unvaccinated who are known to have the COVID-19 virus have a hospitalization rate of  83.6 per 100 000 compared with 4.5 per 100 000 for fully vaccinated persons. The hospitalized persons are mainly patients that also have diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cancer under treatment or other disease.  We know that persons with diabetes, metabolic syndrome, or other conditions are more likely to contract COVID-19. A risk factor known from the beginning is low vitamin D and low Zinc. (Klompas, 2021) (Tenforde et al., 2021) Even though Vitamin D and Zinc reduce the probability of catching COVID-19, they are not an effective treatment.

Klompas, M. (2021). Understanding Breakthrough Infections Following mRNA SARS-CoV-2 Vaccination. JAMA. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2021.19063

Tenforde, M. W., Self, W. H., Adams, K., Gaglani, M., Ginde, A. A., McNeal, T., … Network, I. and O. V. in the A. I. (IVY). (2021). Association Between mRNA Vaccination and COVID-19 Hospitalization and Disease Severity. JAMA. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMA.2021.19499

November 2, 2021

​This time of year, we hear advertisements for Zinc nasal sprays and Zinc lozenges for preventing and shortning the duration of seasonal upper respiratory infections. It turns out they do work, and it is not all just advertisement.  Two groups reviewed the clinical studies to see if they would work and if there could be any adverse effects.  They both found good statistical data that showed their effectiveness. They did not find adverse effects. Some people in the studies quit. Both the prevention and shortening of the duration were modest, but I believe using these products is worthwhile for those who acquire colds quickly and tend to have unpleasant aftereffects.

Hemilä, H. (2011). Zinc lozenges may shorten the duration of colds: a systematic review. Open Respir Med J, 5(1), 51–58. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874306401105010051

Hunter, J., Arentz, S., Goldenberg, J., Yang, G., Beardsley, J., Myers, S. P., … Leeder, S. (2021). Zinc for the prevention or treatment of acute viral respiratory tract infections in adults: a rapid systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ Open, 11(11), e047474. https://doi.org/10.1136/BMJOPEN-2020-047474

October 26, 2021

While on a cruise last week, I saw that there were many people still smoking cigarettes. Unless you are illiterate and living under a rock, you know smoking is crippling and deadly. Stopping is hard for most people; drug addicts report it is harder to quit cigarettes than heroin. Quitting is a test of will. Some things can help: Nicotine patches, e-cigarettes, and varenicline are available and sometimes recommended. (Pierce et al., 2021)

In the Journal of the American Medical Association, Pierce reported that switching to e-cigarettes was not associated with helping smokers remain abstinent from cigarettes. The evidence suggested that recent former smokers' switching to alternate tobacco products may be associated with an increased risk of a relapse to cigarette smoking.

Faber and associates developed the recommended treatment for the American Thoracic Society. The recommended therapy used varenicline along with counseling. (Farber et al., 2020)

Quitting will be challenging, but it is worth it. Find a reason like for your children or grandchildren. Put the cost of cigarettes in a saving account and watch it grow. Find a reason and stay busy. Stop going to places where you smoked. Find what works for you.

Farber, H. J., Leone, F. T., Cruz-Lopes, L., EakiN, M. N., Evins, A. E., Evers-Casey, S., … Zhu, M. (2020). Initiating pharmacologic treatment in tobacco-dependent adults an official American thoracic society clinical practice guideline. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 202(2), E5–E31. https://doi.org/10.1164/RCCM.202005-1982ST

Pierce, J. P., Chen, R., Kealey, S., Leas, E. C., White, M. M., Stone, M. D., … Messer, K. (2021). Incidence of Cigarette Smoking Relapse Among Individuals Who Switched to e-Cigarettes or Other Tobacco Products. JAMA Network Open, 4(10), e2128810–e2128810. https://doi.org/10.1001/JAMANETWORKOPEN.2021.28810

October 21,2021

Cardiovascular disease and Colorectal Cancer are increasing causes of death among U.S. adults. These are only two of the ways life expectancy is decreasing. Asprin has been recommended to reduce these diseases. Aspirin clings to red blood cells, lowers oxygen capacity, and prevents clotting. Reducing clotting both the clots in brain arteries causing strokes and the clots in arteries to the heart causing heart attacks are reduced. This reduced clotting also leads to internal bleeding, particularly intestinal bleeding. The United States Preventative Services Task Force found net benefit for adults who meet the following criteria: Aged 50 to 59 years, have a 10% or greater 10-year CVD risk, are not at increased risk for bleeding, have a life expectancy of at least ten years, and are willing to take low-dose aspirin daily for at least ten years.

The current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of initiating aspirin use for the primary prevention of CVD and CRC in adults younger than 50 years or older than 70 years. They recommend only taking aspirin if a doctor recommends it for a specific condition.

https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/aspirin-to-prevent-cardiovascular-disease-and-cancer

​October 16, 2021

One of the most popular sweeteners is Splenda (Sucralose). The maker of Splenda used several studies to convince the FDA to approve Splenda as a food additive. After the approval, studies have been funded by organizations other than the maker. In later studies, Sucralose elevated glucose and insulin levels in a small study of obese women, who are at increased risk for further weight gain and development of diabetes. Splenda at doses approved by the FDA and EU elevated the expression of P-gp and CYP enzymes to levels previously associated with significant reductions in the bioavailability of therapeutic drugs.

Contrary to the claims s of the manufacturer, chlorinated potentially toxic or cancer-causing compounds were found in the feces of humans that consumed Splenda.  Splenda also reduces the good bacteria in the digestive tract. When heated to baking temperatures in cookies, Splenda generated chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds.  Sucralose converted to two compounds in acidic solutions (Carbonated drinks) over time. These two compounds cause mutations.

Schiffman, S. S., & Rother, K. I. (2013). Sucralose, A Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part B, Critical Reviews, 16(7), 399. https://doi.org/10.1080/10937404.2013.842523

Oct 12, 2021

We have been getting more depressed, experiencing more anxiety, and less happiness. To find out your particular level of happiness, depression, and anxiety, go to life401.com. Select the Happiness tab and scroll down to the tests. If you are depressed and unable to get out of depression, seek professional help.  If increased happiness is what is needed, try the following.

Effective scientifically proven antidepressants

Have friends that make you happier and see them often.

Be thankful and express it to others.

Help others

Have empathy

Have integrity

New social experiences

Live in the present

Be in awe

Savor life

Have less stuff

Do not covet

Have a belief system that eliminates being upset (Albert Ellis)

Do not worry about status

Do not chase pleasure

Smile

Practice mindfulness

Meditate

Forgive

Look for flow experiences

Get adequate sleep

Join a Church and attend small group meetings

Limit added sugar (Better yet, eliminate added sugar)

Exercise

Have a purpose in life

Have blue light in the day and not at night

Limit TV and do not watch the news

Limit electronic communication

Hug as often as socially acceptable

Eat a balanced diet that includes all the nutrients

Eat Anti-inflammatory compounds

Intermittent fasting

Ineffective and counterproductive treatments

Alcohol, Nicotine, and other depressants                      Computer games

Ice cream                                                                                    Marijuana

Oxycodone and other opioids                                             Caffeine and other stimulants

Food                                                                                              Social media                                                                      

Jia, H. (2021). National and State Trends in Anxiety and Depression Severity Scores Among Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, 2020–2021. MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 70(40). https://doi.org/10.15585/MMWR.MM7040E3


October 4, 2021

The ancient Greeks discovered a way to not be upset by things that happen. It was called Stoicism. Albert Ellis brought this philosophy up to date. An example best illustrates the technique. If we are cut off in traffic, our subconscious reacts as a lion has attacked us. Our heart rate will increase, blood pressure will increase, and digestion will stop. This is an example of hate and anger (H&E) or fight, flee or freeze response. They are biochemically the same. We can stop the response by giving our brain a story that doesn’t involve being attacked. For example: Say to yourself that the man who cut you off has his pregnant wife in labor laying on the back seat. You will immediately relax. Make it a game of thinking up stories.

Our brain processes events on our brain stem, which is sometimes called our lizard brain. Events are also processed in the conscious part of the brain called the prefrontal cortex. The lizard brain is quicker and can get us angry before we have consciously thought about it. When a traffic light turns red, we can have a H&E response. Paying attention to our green to red ratio will unstress driving. The secret is to replace our subconscious reaction with a conscious thought that makes the event interesting, exciting or pleasant, not threatening.

Being verbally attacked: You are fat, stupid, and ugly. Rather than getting upset and having the H&E response logically think through what was said. Maybe I could lose a few pounds; I know that my IQ is above average, and my face is plain but, most would not say ugly. I don’t think the person who made the evaluation is a good evaluator.

Things like car crashes, medical conditions, and financial loss should give us time to be thankful that we have insurance, doctors, and even people in the street can obtain food. When bad things happen, look at what we have, not what is lost. It will be a time of thanksgiving, not a time of stress. Ellis, A. (1990) How to stubbornly refuse to make yourself miserable about anything—yes anything! Carol Pub Group

September 26,2021

​A colonoscopy is not fun. The preparation does not add to the fun. The Journal of the American Medical Association has a good article on the different preparations for clearing the colon. Doctors are creatures of habit, just like you and me. They are also hesitant to recommend a $100 product when the $ 14 product works. If you, like me, are scheduled to have a colonoscopy, I recommend reading the article; if you find something that may be better for you, it doesn’t hurt to bring it up with your doctor. Copy the complete article and give it to the doctor when you have found something that you think may be better for you. The link is below.
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2784620


September 21, 2021

R.A. Whitmer and associates studied Central Obesity and Alzheimer’s disease. Central obesity is a sign of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is primarily caused by Fructose. I discussed the problems associated with Fructose in earlier blogs. Whitmer and associates used Kaiser Permanente data; This data has been an excellent source of information on diseases and their causes. They analyzed the data on 6,583 subjects adjusting for age, sex, race, education, marital status, diabetes, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, stroke, heart disease, and medical utilization. They used body diameter measured from 1964 to 1973. These subjects were in mid-life. They found of the 6,583 persons studied 15.9% had dementia 36 years later. Being in the top one third of central obesity increased the chance of having dementia by nearly three over those in the bottom third. We have already linked metabolic syndrome to heart disease, several types of cancer, and diabetes.  
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18367704/

​September 15, 2021

Hate and Anger, with us in times past and with us now.                   

Seneca observed that the Roman nobility were always angry. He said that the slaves were happier than the nobility. Hating someone does not send out anger waves that hurt them. Hate injures the person doing the hating, not the person or thing causing the Hate. Hate and Anger hurts our body and brain and does nothing to make things better.

Hate and Anger trigger a biologically embedded “fight-or-flight” response. When human beings faced physical threats like animal predators in ancient times, the fight-or-flight response saved our lives by pumping our bodies with hormones and chemicals necessary for intense physical activity. When Hate and Anger kick in, your body readies itself to respond to a perceived threat, your muscles tense, your digestive processes stop, and specific brain centers start firing in ways that alter brain chemistry. When angry, any bodily function not directly related to fighting or fleeing is put on hold, including digestion, assimilation, cell production, body maintenance, circulation to internal organs, healing, and immunological defenses. The anger process damages internal organs and can lead to a heart attack, stroke, and other diseases. Your heart is especially vulnerable to the deadly effects of Hate and Anger and its consequences. 

http://www.nationalforum.com/Electronic Journal Volumes/Hendricks, LaVelle The Effects of Anger on the Brain and Body NFJCA V2 N1 2013.pdf
Colbert, D. (2003). Deadly emotions: understand the mind-body-spirit connection that can heal or destroy you.

September 8, 2021

Having a long health span should be the goal. I describe health span as the years of life without infirmities that prevent normal activities without assistance and without mental problems that interfere with enjoying life. Inflammation is the primary cause of diseases that cause infirmities and mental issues.  Below I have listed sources of inflammation and what inflammation does. In later posts, I will go into some detail on these items.

Causes of Inflammation:

Anxiety
Anger
Depression
High levels of insulin usually caused by metabolic syndrome
Toxins (includes excess alcohol, nicotine, and other drugs)
Inactive proteins in cells caused by constant eating that prevents cells using proteins for food
Damaged mitochondria due to constant eating that prevents autophagy (death and removal of damaged cells)
Sleep deprivation
Excess proteins
Omega 6 oils
Trace element deficiency or excess
Wrong intestinal bacteria usually caused by insufficient dietary fiber or antibiotics

What Inflammation Causes:

Fats to stick to the walls of blood cells, causing clots
Damage to tissue that causes cancer to develop
Damage to the heart
The buildup of damaged tissue in the brain (Alzheimer’s)
Liver damage that frees more toxins for further damage
Immune system damage
Improper immune system activation that causes allergies
Inappropriate immune system activation that causes autoimmune diseases
Loss of bone mass that leads to broken bones
Type 2 and type 1 diabetes

September 3, 2021

How to lose weight without a great deal of willpower, pain, or suffering

Understand the science:

Calorie restriction fails to reduce weight 99% of the time. The metabolic system will slow down to compensate for calorie restriction, at the same time, step up the production of ghrelin, the hunger hormone, and decrease the hormones that would reduce hunger.

Exercise in moderation is an excellent way to be healthy. It is only a minimally effective weight-loss strategy. Exercise increases hunger, and moderate exercise does not significantly increase the metabolic rate. Long-duration high-intensity exercise can be harmful.

Fructose is in all added sugars. (table sugar, honey, maple syrup, high fructose corn syrup, and agave) Fructose increases the production of ghrelin. Fructose can not be used by the body for energy and must be converted to fat by the liver. Fat from the liver is stored in a fatty organ surrounding the intestines; this belly fat is the most visible sign of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome leads to heart disease, fatty liver disease, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer’s.

Fiber, fat and protein decrease hunger and signal the brain to stop eating.

Weight loss requires fat burning and can only happen when the level of insulin in the body is low. Sugars, starches, and proteins keep insulin high.

Steps to effective weight loss:

Eliminate all added sugars: no cookies, fruit juices (not even orange juice), candy, cakes, pies, condiments with added sugar (catsup), etc. Limit fruit to one serving a day. Learn to read food labels to avoid buying foods with added sugar.

Eat a zero added sugar, high-fat, high fiber, low carbohydrate diet. Saturated fats are the best. (See life401.com August 27, 2021 blog post)  Fat will reduce apatite. Unfortunately, many obese people lose the signal from fat to stop eating. Eat about 0.4 grams of protein per day for each pound of target weight. For those over 65, eat 0.5 grams of additional protein. Read food labels and do the math.

Set a realistic target. A reduction of 10% of your current weight is realistic; after hitting this target and maintaining this weight, you may want to set a new target. Unrealistic targets can lead to disappointment and giving up.

Do not snack. Snacks keep insulin levels high and prevent fat burning.

Use intermittent fasting. Pick a time window and only eat within that window. I fast from 6:00 PM until Noon the next day, an 18 hour fast. Everyone is different; you may only be able to fast for 13 hours a day.

Stay busy.  Everyone has found that they have been active on some project and missed a meal. If you follow the above, you will quickly lose several pounds of water. After the first few pounds, the loss will be fat. It will be slow, but it is essential to stay with it. A slow loss over a long time is the most healthful. Cycling loss, gain, loss, gain is deadly. 

August 27, 2021

In the 1950s Ansel Keys a fish physiologist did a major study of diets in different countries and heart disease. By eliminating countries like France from the study he picked countries that supported his recommendation to reduce dietary fat and replace saturated fat with margarine. His study was a fraud. Both of these have led to the present obesity, type two diabetes, heart disease, and Alzheimer’s epidemics. Despite many good clinical studies that show high carbohydrate diets cause all of the above problems doctors are still recommending a low-fat diet and recommending reduction of saturated fat. This post will focus on dietary fat.

Anita Slomski in her article in The Journal of the American Medical Association described a study of subjects who had significant migraine episodes. The 182 subjects where either fed a standard diet which is high in omega 6 fatty acids or a diet lower in omega 6 fatty acids and higher in omega 3 fatty acids. The subjects fed the low omega fatty acids had less frequent and less severe migraine episodes. https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2783425

This is only the latest of studies that showed the damage done with omega 6 fatty acids. Omega 6 fatty acids cause inflammation which in turn causes cancer, heart disease, and increases the risk of diabetes. Omega 6 oils when in HDL and LDL can be oxidized to produce aldehydes that cause cancer and lead to arterial blockages. Saturated fats do not cause any of these problems.   Omega 3 fatty acids are anti-inflammatory. Fish oils are high in the best source of omega 3 fatty acids.  Below is a table of common fatty acids:

 Common oils      %Omega 6 fatty acid                 %Omega 3                High saturated fat content
Palm Kernel oil           1.6                                           0                                              X
Chia seed                    5.8                                           17.5                                        
Coconut oil                 1.8                                           0                                               X
Butter                          2.2                                           1.4                                            X
Beef tallow                  3.1                                           0.6                                            X
Olive Oil                       9.3                                           0.07
Lard (pig & bacon)     10.2                                         1.0                                            X
Walnuts                       38.1                                         9.08
Canola high oleic        14.5                                         9.1
Safflower oil               14.3                                          0
Almond oil                  17.4                                          0
Peanut oil                    31.7                                          0
Sesame oil                   41.3                                         0.3
Soybean oil                 50.3                                         7.0
Cottonseed oil             51.5                                         0.2
Corn oil                        53.5                                          1.2      
Wheat germ oil           54.8                                         6.9
Sunflower                    65.7                                          0.0
Grape seed                  69.6                                         0.1
Safflower (linoleic)     74.6                                          0.0

 ​August 21, 2021

According to Rafael Sanjuán RNA viruses like COVID-19 should have a higher mutation rate than DNA viruses. His calculations suggest a mutation rate of 1.6 mutations for every one million virus replications.  This sounds rare, but many million replications happen with each infection. Each new variant will be a new virus with unique properties. Most will be less able to spread and will not reproduce. Hiroshi Haeno studied the risk of resistance to evolve in a virus population that grows exponentially. Over time there will be many strains in circulation. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies will need to develop vaccines for the new strains. With billions of people passing the virus to each other, the chance of contracting the virus is nearly 100%. According to Doctor Austgen the less deadly virus strains will tend to dominate because they will be more likely to spread by people who have the disease and can continue to continue to work, study and interact with others.

Probability of resistance evolution for exponentially growing virus in the host
Hiroshi Haeno https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17306832/

Viral Mutation Rates
Rafael Sanjuán Journal of Virology
https://journals.asm.org/doi/10.1128/JVI.00694-10

 ​August 15, 2021

There have been concerns about the effects of vaccination for COVID-19. We know that the impact of contracting the virus includes many severe complications, including death. One concern is for losing manhood. To put this concern to rest, Daniel C. Gonzalez and others studied sperm count before and after COVID-19 vaccination by both BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) and mRNA-1273 (Moderna). They found a slight increase in sperm count that was not statically meaningful. Do not let concerns for bad reactions to the vaccines prevent being vaccinated and then contracting the disease and suffering from the consequences of contracting the virus.   
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2781360

August 6, 2021


Rabbits were imported into Australia for food. They quickly multiplied like rabbits and were destroying the planted crops and the native habitat. After many failed attempts Myxoma virus was imported to kill the rabbits. The early strain quickly killed many rabbits. Dead rabbits do not pass the disease. A less deadly more easily transmitted strain then dominated the disease in the population. This killed the more susceptible and the less healthy rabbits. Australia now has a healthier population of rabbits and less deadly but more easily transmitted strains of myxoma virus in circulation. The myxoma virus may be coming back in a deadlier strain. You can substitute humans for rabbits and COVID-19 for myxoma virus and know where we are going. It is already happening. Our obese, diabetic and less healthy are dying and the strains are more contagious. Initial reports on the delta strain show it to be less deadly if so, we are on the same path as the Australian rabbits. The only way to get off of the rabbit path is to have everyone vaccinated.
https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/953858?src=WNL_clfoc_210805_MSCPEDIT_TEMP2&uac=362670CN&impID=3536218&faf=1#vp_2
https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/08/rabbit-virus-arms-race/536796/

August 2, 2021

John T. Brooks and Jay C. Butler scientists working at the CDC published a study of mask effectiveness. They identified 10 μm (0.0004 inches) in diameter droplets as the cause of the spread. These droplets are only partially filtered by cloth masks. They included in their report scientific studies that had been done by others to identify mask effectiveness in preventing COVID-19 transmission. The different studies showed that mask wearing reduced transmission to between 20% and 30% of what would have been expected without mask wearing. Most of the studies were done before the spread of the recent more easily transmitted variant of the virus. One of the characteristics of a virus is continued development of variants. Those that are more contagious and are slower to develop symptoms while spreading more virus particles will be more likely to become more numerous.  As a result, with or without masks persons who are unvaccinated will get the virus.

So far, the variants have not been as likely to be contracted by those who have been vaccinated; when they have been contracted the need for hospitalization and death have been remarkably reduced.  I had one of the serious side effects of the vaccine. If I contracted the virus without being vaccinated, I probably would have had the worst affects of the virus. Delaying vaccination because of possible symptoms is risking possible hospitalization and death from the virus. JAMA. 2021;325(10):998-999. doi:10.1001/jama.2021.1505

July 28, 2021

The passage of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1994 deregulated the dietary supplement industry. The government was non longer involved in verifying the claims of the dietary supplements. As a result, there has been a flood of products on the market that claim to improve health and cause weight loss. John A. Batsis and this colleagues studied supplement claims and published their findings in Obesity Review. They showed little good unbiased clinical support for marketed supplements. These products are profitable for their manufacturers but of little help to the consumers. They looked at the products one by one. Before taking a supplement it would be good to read their study.  https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/oby.23110

July 18, 2021

Screening for colon cancer discovers any early cancer growths when treatment can effectively prevent development and spread. Colonoscopy is not without risk of possible severe injury. Older patients will have a thinner colon lining and are more easily injured. It is a balance between harm and cancer prevention. Wenjie Ma and others studied the benefit and risks of colonoscopy for those over 75 years old. The study included 56 374 patients over 75 years old. There was a net benefit to having a colonoscopy. However, screening colonoscopy after 75 years of age was not associated with risk reduction in CRC death among participants with cardiovascular disease or significant potentially lethal diseases. My most recent colonoscopy was on March 2, 2017, and it showed some polyps. My mother died of colon cancer, so I will not miss having one done in 2022.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34014275/     

July 7, 2021

There have been many studies of sugar-sweetened beverages. In all cases they were found to be detrimental to health. Here I am reviewing two that were also reviews of several scientific publications. Vasanti S Malik and others looked at the underlying cause. Their conclusion was based on studies that included 310,819 subjects and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes. They found that persons in the highest quantile of sugar-sweetened beverage intake had a 26% higher risk of developing diabetes than those in the lowest. Those who consumed the most sugar-sweetened beverages were also more likely to have metabolic syndrome.

Gitanjali M Singh and others looked at how sugar-sweetened beverages caused disease in multiple countries.  They found that 5% of sugar-sweetened beverage-related deaths occurred in low-income, 70.9% in middle-income, and 24.1% in high-income countries. The least affected country was Japan that had only 1% related to sugar-sweetened beverages. The most affected was Mexico, with 12.1% of deaths related to sugar-sweetened beverages.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/20693348/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26124185/

June 29, 2021

Oral hygiene
There are more than 700 species of microorganisms that can be in our mouth. A healthy person will have about 250 to 300 of these. Streptococcus is the most abundant. These microorganisms colonize both the soft tissue and our teeth. They form the plaque on our teeth. Our body protects our mouth and teeth by making saliva that contains a variety of compounds that do various jobs. The enzyme amylase breaks down starches into sugars. It starts the digestive process, and after we are done eating, amylase clears the mouth of carbohydrates. Sugars are the primary food for microorganisms. Saliva also contains compounds that neutralize the acids in food and those made by bacteria. There are proteins in saliva that coat the teeth and soft tissue to block microorganisms from attaching to these surfaces. There 14 different compounds in saliva that attack bacteria, fungus, and viruses. An important one is lactoferrin that binds iron, preventing microorganism growth. The soft tissue sheds cells from the surface to remove any colonizing microorganisms. Teeth do not shed, so microorganisms can form films on these surfaces.  We are most vulnerable to microorganism colonization of the space between the teeth and the gums. While eating, the saliva lubricates to allow swallowing, but the other functions are overwhelmed.

For optimum oral hygiene, we should eat, remove food from our mouth and allow the saliva time to do its work. Continuous eating keeps sugars available to the microorganisms.  Soft tissue bleeding continues to provide iron and overwhelms the lactoferrin.  Vitamin D and calcium deficiency is the usual cause of bleeding gums.   I floss my teeth but didn’t understand the purpose. Now I know flossing is a way to remove food particles from the space between the gums and the teeth and remove plaque to allow the saliva a head start on coating the teeth.
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030057121830335X?via%3Dihub
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7285165/                                                         https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3472001/

June 24, 2021

I keep coming back to Alzheimer’s because my father died of Alzheimer’s. As far as I can determine reading the literature, there is a path to avoid. It starts with fructose consumption. The next step is metabolic syndrome (enlarged belly fat caused by enlarged omentum, high A1c, high blood pressure). Diabetes is next with swollen hands and feet and the need for drugs, including insulin.  The next step is Alzheimer’s.  The further along this path, the harder it is to stop the progression and reverse the damage. We can avoid this path with the elimination of fructose in our diet. Reversing diabetes requires a drastic reduction of carbohydrates.  We can stop the progression of early cognitive impairment with what is called a ketogenic diet. This diet replaces glucose as fuel for our muscles and brain with wrongly called ketones made by our liver from fat. ( I am a chemist, and these are not ketones; they are various hydroxy acids.) There have been many studies, and all have shown positive results in having a ketogenic diet where there are minimum carbohydrates. Several studies indicate that adding medium-chain triglycerides is an improvement to just reducing carbohydrates. Below are some links.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arr.2019.101001
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26923399/
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31757576/246129                                                              https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1871402118301164?via%3Dihub     https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1871402118306684                                                 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2018.12.017

June 17, 2021

Methylene Chloride is a common paint remover. It works quickly and evaporates without leaving a residual. It also doesn't have a strong odor. There are two problems with Methylene Chloride.

1) It is highly toxic; in the last 38 years, it has killed more than two people pre-year and has made 37,201 people ill.

2) It is toxic to the environment and is not easily degraded.

When using paint strippers, be careful, all of them are toxic, and many are flammable. Please do not use any of them in a small unventilated space, and watch out for ignition sources like electrical switches.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33871539/

June 11, 2021


The Bible talks about daily bread and the bread of life. There doesn't seem to be any concern about celiac disease. What has changed? We no longer use yeast to make bread, and we take antacids. Wheat has a protein called glutin. This protein is difficult to digest. To survive, plants must make digesting their seeds as hard as possible. Undigested proteins can cause an allergic reaction. By making bread with yeast, the yeast will do a partial breakdown of the glutin. The acids in our stomach work with an enzyme called pepsin to break down the gluten further. The microbes in the digestive tract also break down proteins. Glutin is a nutritious protein, and there is no reason to avoid it. Bread made with yeast smells better and tastes better. Yeast-made bread doesn't have a long shelf life. Support your local bakery that uses yeast. Yiqing Wang and others did a study that demonstrated glutin does not cause cognitive function loss.   https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34019084/

Benjamin Lebwohl and others writing in the British Medical Journal found that long-term dietary intake of gluten was not associated with the risk of coronary heart disease., However, the avoidance of gluten may reduce consumption of beneficial whole grains, which may affect cardiovascular risk. The promotion of gluten-free diets among people without celiac disease should not be encouraged.

BMJ: first published as 10.1136/bmj.j1892 on 2 May 2017.                      
 
June 6, 2021

For COVID-19 to infect a cell, it must attach itself to the cell; The virus must then insert a strand of RNA into the cell. This RNA is the instruction to make more viruses. The end of the virus that attaches to the cell is called the spike. The spike is not sharp but is a projection with a collection of proteins that allow the virus to adhere to the cell. Most of the vaccines generate proteins that mimic the spike end. When the immune system recognizes these proteins, it reacts and organizes to fight these proteins. COVID-19 mutates like any other virus; most of these variations do not reproduce, but some that do can be more infectious.    There are now four variants of concern.
B.1.1.7 was first detected in the UK.  This variant has nine variations in the spike protein. It is better at attaching to human cells, but data from Israel suggests that the current vaccines based on spike proteins should still work.
B.1.351 was first detected in South Africa.  This variant also has nine variations in the spike protein. It is also better at attaching to human cells, but clinical trials show a weaker immune reaction. The AstraZeneca vaccine use has been halted in South Africa because it may not be effective. The Maderna and Pfizer, and J&J continue to be effective.
B.1.427 and B.1.429 were first found in California. These variants have four variations in the spike protein. It is better at attaching to human cells, but this variation seems to be dying out.  The current vaccines still work but are somewhat less effective.
P.1 was first detected in Brazil. There are several sub-variations, each has several different changes. It is better at attaching to human cells, but current data suggests that the current vaccines may be less effective but still provide some protection.  https://cen.acs.org/sections/new-covid-19-variants-vaccines-effective.html

June 2, 2021

The vegan and vegetarian supported scientists have told the public that meat and particularly processed meat was the cause of cardiovascular disease and cancer.  Two scientists each assembled teams of scientists to review all of the work done to show whether this was true or not. They looked at the actual studies and the statistics used in the studies. Robin W. M. Vernooij’s team determined there was weak evidence for diets that excluded meat and processed meat, providing a small cardiovascular disease and cancer reduction. Bradley C Johnston’s team found weak and low-certainty evidence for any cardiovascular disease and cancer reduction due to reduced meat consumption or processed meat consumption. There isn't sufficient scientific evidence to remove meat or processed meat from our diet. If you want a steak or a hot dog don't let any sissy vegan or vegetarian tell you no.  Tell them to go to a very hot place.

Johnson article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31569235/

Vernooij’s article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31569217/

May 28, 2021

Jackson S. Turner and colleagues studied the persistence of immunity against COVID-19. It is known that long-lived bone marrow plasma cells are a persistent and essential source of protective antibodies. COVID-19 anti-serum antibodies experience rapid decay in the first few months after infection, raising concerns that long-lived bone marrow plasma cells may not be generated and immunity against this virus may be short-lived. In patients who experienced mild COVID-19 infections, Turner and associates demonstrated that antibodies decline rapidly in the first four months after infection and then more gradually over the following seven months, remaining detectable at least 11 months after infection. They also demonstrated that long-lived bone marrow plasma cells are quiescent, indicating that they are part of a long-lived compartment. They showed that COVID-19 infection induces a robust, long-lived immune response in humans. This persistent immunity would also likely be true of vaccinated individuals.
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-021-03647-4

May 26, 2021

I am 81 years old. Click here for my latest blood test. Note my low A1c on page 3. I am following my advice in my book. I was more than 220 pounds and had back-to-back heart surgeries in January 2017. I am now 175 pounds with more muscle and a smaller belly.  Click here for a picture of me with metabolic syndrome. The heart surgery was when I decided to study the problem and change my ways. How to do it is in my book Age Successfully. The free summary is on the Age Successfully page at the bottom of the book cover.  

May 18, 2021

Deepa Mohan, Ph.D., Andrew Mente, Ph.D.; Mahshid Dehghan, Ph.D.; et al. published their analysis of fish consumption in The Journal of the American Medical Association. They reviewed four studies of 191,558 subjects. They found 175 grams (6 ounces) reduced the risk of death and stroke in those with heart disease but did not reduce death or stroke in otherwise healthy individuals; because fish have brain-damaging mercury; eat fish in moderation if you like it. Fish is nutritious. Stay away from larger predatory fish such as shark, marlin, and swordfish.
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33683310
https://academic.oup.com/jn/article/137/12/2805/4750751

May  8, 2021

The medical research community finally understands that metabolic syndrome, not obesity, is associated with heart disease, strokes, fatty liver disease, diabetes, and dementia. Obesity and metabolic syndrome are not the same. The May 7, 2021 issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association published the study results by Ayana K. April-Sanders, and Carlos J. Rodriguez. This study described metabolically healthy obesity. Their criteria were:

1) Systolic blood pressure less than 130 mm Hg

2) Waist to hip ratio less than 0.95 for women and 1.03 for men

3) No diabetes

Obesity itself does not seem to be the problem. It is metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is usually caused by fructose and shows up as an enlarged omentum. The omentum is the fatty organ that surrounds the intestine. It is what makes men look pregnant. Metabolic syndrome leads to diabetes and dementia. It is also the cause of fatty liver and heart disease; the sugar on the red blood cells reduces the oxygen available to all tissues and worsens any disease. Fructose also causes hunger and leads to eating sugar, hunger, eating sugar, hunger, and repeating. Often people with metabolic syndrome are obese, so many studies are made without differentiation.
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2779690

May 2, 2021

I subscribe to Medscape, a service for practicing physicians to earn the educational credits required to maintain their license. They have an academic part, and a sequence of cases that require the doctor to either recommend additional testing or give a diagnosis. I read the educational component and take the test. The latest one was on vitamin D and the cost in money and lives. The original work was done in Germany. The authors converted the results to the U.S. equivalent.


In the United States, there are approximately 118 million people older than 50, and about 610,000 persons older than 50 dies of cancer each year. Assuming that all the persons older than 50 are provided with the cheapest brand of vitamin D 1000 IU, at 5 cents per tablet, a strategy similar to that advocated by Dr. Niedermaier and colleagues in Germany would cost $18.25 per year per person or $2.2 billion per year across the United States. Based on U.S. costs for end-of-life cancer care provided in the German article, this would result in savings of $3.7 billion for families, government, and insurers in the United States and a net benefit (after paying for the vitamin D) of $1.5 billion. Americans would also gain an additional 870,000 years of life per year.
Authors: News Author: Helen Leask; CME Author: Charles P. Vega, MDhttps://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/949940?src=wnl_tpal_210501_mscpedu&impID=3346853

April 29, 2021

Losing weight and improving health is easier than most think. I am on a time-restricted eating schedule of 18 hours of fasting and six hours of eating. This has prevented me from having metabolic syndrome. I found it easy once it became routine. Michael J. Wilkinson and others writing in the journal Cell Metabolism found that time-restricted eating reduces the risks of metabolic diseases in otherwise healthy individuals. However, patients with diagnosed metabolic syndrome often undergo pharmacotherapy, and it has never been tested whether time-restricted eating can act synergistically with pharmacotherapy in animal models or humans. In a single-arm, paired-sample trial, 19 participants with metabolic syndrome and a baseline mean daily eating window of ≥14 h, the majority of whom were on a statin and/or antihypertensive therapy, underwent ten-hour of time-restricted eating (all dietary intake within a consistent self-selected ten-hour window) for 12 weeks. Wilkinson found this time-restricted eating intervention improves cardiometabolic health for patients with metabolic syndrome receiving standard medical care, including high statin and antihypertensive use rates. Participants lost weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, visceral fat, had lower blood pressure, atherogenic lipids, and glycated hemoglobin (A1c).   https://www.cell.com/cell-metabolism/fulltext/S1550-4131(19)30611-  4?_returnURL

April 22, 2021

All 1400 employees and students at the Rockefeller University campus were tested for the markers that showed either the reaction to the COVID-19 virus or reactions to the vaccine. Two of the women who showed that they had appropriately reacted to the vaccine and should have been immune developed the virus. The genetic sequences of the two viruses were different from each other and from the initial viral sequence used to develop the vaccine.  These variations could have been the reason that the vaccine did not prevent the contraction of the virus. The good news was; the women quickly recovered. The bottom line is after we are vaccinated we do not need to be as concerned as we were but we can’t be entirely careless.
Ezgi Hacisuleyman in the New England Journal of Medicine

https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2105000

April 19, 2021

It is our duty as aunts, uncles, and grandparents to see that our grandchildren nieces, and nephews are not abused. Abuse often leads to serious injury and death of an infant. There was an article for doctors to tell the difference between abuse and the normal bruises from falls and other common childhood accidents; Kim Kaczor, MS; Douglas J. Lorenz, Ph.D.; et al did a good job of describing the difference. It is available at https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2778559  If you notice bruises on someone younger than four years old notice the location and frequency and then read the journal to either allay or confirm your suspicions. You may need to offer to change a diaper to get a better look.

April 11, 2021

Vaccine-induced clotting reduction.
I stay current in the latest medical discoveries. I do this by reviewing multiple journals and subscribing to a service that scans journals for articles that are in my area of interest. When I see something that would be of general interest I post it on my blog. The April 9 edition of the New England Journal of Medicine has two articles that describe the loss of blood clotting ability after receiving the vaccine against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19).  The authors called this complication vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia. In my case, this reduction of clotting ability caused a small bleed in my brain. This in turn caused me to have a Tonic Colonic Seizure.  The journal article authors found only five cases and believe it to be rare. I know of me and two other cases so it may not be as rare as they think. If you know someone who has a problem like mine have them print out the article for their health provider and report the problem to the government.

To report an adverse effect go to: https://vaers.hhs.gov/
The journal article is at https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2104882?query=RP